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Encyclopedia of Food & Wine

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Aal (Ger.) Eel.
abaissage (Fr.) Rolling out pastry dough.
abalone A mollusk whose single large abductor muscle connecting its single shell is edible; used widely in Japanese and Chinese cooking, either fresh, dried, or canned; found throughout the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of California, and in the English Channel, where it is called ormer.
abatis (Fr.) External poultry trimmings, such as wing tips, necks, and
feet; sometimes used interchangeably with abets for giblets.
abets (Fr.) Poultry giblets and meat offal; internal organs or variety
meats, such as hearts, liver, sweetbreads, and gizzards; sometimes
used interchangeably with abatis.
abbacchio (It.) A very young suckling lamb.
abricot (Fr.) Apricot.
absinthe A green liqueur flavored with wormwood leaves and anise;
highly intoxicating and therefore outlawed in many countries. Associated with many of the artists of the early 1900's including the "Impressionists"
abura (yap. ) Oil.
aburage (Jap.) Deep-fried tofu.
acciuga (It.) Anchovy.
aceite (Sp.) Oil.
aceituna (Sp.) Olive.
acetic acid The acid in vinegar that comes from a second fermentation
of wine, beer, or cider.
aceto (It.) Vinegar; aceto balsamico is a very fine vinegar, made in
Modena, Italy, aged in special casks for a dark, mellow, subtle flavor.
aceto-dolce (It.) A sweet-and-sour mixture of vegetables and fruits
used in Italy as an antipasto.
achiote (Sp.) Annatto. Used most often for its color, a brillant yellow orange, also as a spice, adding a suttle earthly flavor
acidophilus milk Milk slightly soured with the lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria, which converts the lactose in milk to lactic acid, making it both easy to digest and healthful.
acidulated water Water to which a small amount of lemon juice or
vinegar has been added; used to prevent fruits and vegetables from
discoloring and to blanch certain foods, such as sweetbreads.
Acton, Eliza (1799-1859) A poet manque, whose best-selling
cookbook, Modern Cookery for Private Families (1845), is notable for its clear and well-organized directions to the middle-class housewife in pre-industrial England.
adega (Port.) A wine cellar or storage space, usually above ground.
adobo (Phil.) A stew, usually made with pork or other meat, or some-
times with chicken or seafood, with a thick spicy sauce made piquant
with vinegar; the Mexican version of the dish is made more pungent
still by a spicy marinade of red chili peppers. Common in Southwestern cuisine as a complex roast pepper sauce.
adrak (Ind.) Fresh ginger root.
adzuki (Jap.) See azuki.
aemono (Jap.) Salad.
agar-agar (Malay) An Oriental seaweed used by commercial food pro-
cessors as a gelatin substitute in soups, sauces, jellies, and ice cream; it has a remarkable capacity for absorbing liquids-far greater than that of gelatin or isinglass.
age (Jap.) Deep-fried.
aging A method of improving and maturing the flavor of a food, such
as game, cheese, or wine, by allowing controlled chemical changes
to take place over time.
agiter (Fr.) To stir.
aglio (It.) Garlic.
agneau (Fr.) Lamb.
agnello (It.) Lamb.
agnolotti (It.) Stuffed squares of pasta, such as ravioli, with a meat
agrio (Sp.) Sour.
aguacate (Sp.) Avocado.
aguardiente (Sp.) A very strong Spanish liqueur, similar to Italian grappa or French mare.
aiglefin (Fr.) Haddock.
aigre (Fr.) Sour, tart, bitter.
aiguillette (Fr. ) A thin strip of poultry cut lengthwise from the breast; also a strip of meat cut lengthwise with the grain.
ail (Fr.) Garlic.
aioli (Fr.) A garlic mayonnaise from Provence, thick and strongly
flavored, usually served with seafood; also spelled ailloli.
airelle rouge (Fr.) Cranberry.
aji (Jap.) Horse mackerel; flavor.
ajo (Sp.) Garlic; ajo e ojo is an Italian dialect name for a spaghetti
sauce of garlic sauteed in olive oil. See aglio and olio.
ajouter (Fr.) To add an ingredient.
akvavit (Swed.) A strong, colorless liquor distilled from grain or
potatoes and flavored variously, often with caraway; served very cold and drunk neat, often with beer, before or after the meal.
a la (Fr.) In the style of, the full phrase being a la mode de; this term designates a specific garnish; often the a la is assumed rather than stated, so that a dish such as Sole a la bonne femme, for instance,
is usually contracted to Sole bonne femme.
alb6ndigas (Sp.) Spicy Spanish or Mexican meatballs made of pork,
beef, etc.; also a dumpling.
Albufera (Fr.) A supreme sauce with meat glaze and pimento butter;
the garnish a l'Albufera consists of poultry stuffed with risotto, truffles, and foie gras with elaborate tartlets; also a small cake topped with chopped almonds.
albumen The protein portion of egg white, comprising its greater part,
which coagulates with heat; also found in milk, animal blood, plants,
and seeds.
alcachofa (Sp.) Artichoke.
alcohol See fermentation.
al dense See dense, al.
ale English beer made from unroasted barley malt and hops, quickly
fermented, and drunk fresh; usually stronger and more bitter than
beer; varies in color from light to dark.
algerienne, a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with tomatoes braised in oil and sweet potato croquettes.
Ali -Bab The pseudonym of Henry Babinski, a French gourmand who,
as an engineer on location and desperate for good food, taught himself
to cook. His mammoth Gastronome Pratique ( 1928), which has since
become a classic, shows that he learned very well.
aliolo (Sp.) Aioli.
allemande (Fr.) Veal veloute reduced with white wine and mushroom
essence, flavored with lemon juice, and bound with egg yolks; sauce
allemande, which means "German sauce," is a basic classical sauce.
all-i-oli (Sp.) Aioli.
allspice A spice made from the berries of the Jamaica pepper tree, dried and ground, which tastes like a combination of cloves, nutmeg, and
cinnamon (hence its name); used in sweet and savory cooking.
allumette (Fr.) A strip of puff pastry with either a sweet or savory
filling or garnish; also potatoes, peeled and cut into matchstick-sized
almeja (Sp.) Clam.
almendra (Sp.) Almond.
arose (Fr.) Shad.
Aloxe-Corton A village in Burgundy that produces excellent red and
white wines and has some of the most celebrated Cote d'Or and
Cote de Beaune vineyards.
aloyau (Fr.) Sirloin.
Alsace A province in northeastern France along the Rhine, whose German
and French cuisine reflects its political history; famous for its foie
gras, charcuterie, ducks, wine, and many other specialties.
alsacienne, a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with sauerkraut and ham or sausages,
or with other Alsatian specialties.
Altenburger (Ger.) A soft, uncooked cheese made from goats' milk
or goats' and cows' milk mixed; has a delicate white mold on the
exterior and a creamy, smooth, flavorful interior.
Alto Adige A valley in northeastern Tirolean Italy around Bolzano, which exports a large quantity of good wines, both red and white, across the border to Austria.
amai (Jap. ) Sweet.
amalgamer (Fr.) To mix, blend, or combine ingredients.
amandine (Fr.) Garnished with almonds; often misspelled almondine.
amaretto (It.) See macaroon.
ambrosia Food of the gods which, in Greek mythology, they ate with
nectar; a fruit dessert, often citrus, topped with grated coconut.
americaine, a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with sliced lobster tail and truffles; also, a dish of lobster sauteed with olive oil and tomato in the style of Provence; often confused with armoricaine.
amiral, a 1' (Fr.) A classic fish garnish of mussels, oysters, crayfish, and mushrooms in sauce normande, enriched with crayfish butter.
amontillado A Spanish sherry, literally in the Montilla style, usually
somewhat darker and older than a fino; the term is sometimes loosely
used to mean a medium sherry.
amoroso A kind of oloroso sherry, sweetened and darkened.
amuse-gueule (Fr.) Slang for cocktail appetizer, "taste tickler."
anadama An American yeast bread made from white flour with cornmeal
and molasses.
anago (Jap.) Conger eel.
Anaheim chili See guero.
ananas (Fr. and Ger.) Pineapple.
ancho (Mex.) A deep-red chili pepper, fairly mild in flavor and dried
rather than fresh, about five inches long and three inches wide.
anchois (Fr.) Anchovy.
anchovy A small silvery fish, sometimes broiled or fried fresh like a
sardine, but most often salted and canned; sometimes used in
ancienne, a 1' (Fr.) Various preparations, often fricasseed and garnished in the old-fashioned style; usually a mixture such as cockscombs and truffles; there are classic recipes for braised beef rump and chicken a l'ancienne.
andalouse, a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with tomatoes, sweet red peppers,
eggplant, and sometimes rice pilaf and chipolata sausages or ham.
andouille (Fr.) A sausage made from pork chitterlings and tripe,
sliced and served cold as an hors d'oeuvre.
andouillette (Fr.) A sausage similar to andouille but made from the
small intestine rather than the large; the many varieties are sold
poached, then grilled before serving hot with strong mustard.
angel food cake A sponge cake made with stiffly beaten egg whites
but no yolks, producing a light and airy texture and white color.
angel hair See capelli d'angelo.
angelica An herb of the parsley family used for medicinal and culinary
purposes; it flavors several liqueurs and confections and often imparts
a green color.
angels on horseback Oysters wrapped in bacon, skewered, grilled, and
served on buttered toast fingers; a favorite hors d'oeuvre or savory
in England.
anglaise, a 1' (Fr.) English style-that is, plainly boiled or roasted, or coated with an egg and breadcrumb hatter and deep-fried.
angler See monkfish.
angostura bitters See bitters.
anguille (Fr.) Eel; anguila in Spanish; anguilla in Italian.
animelles (Fr.) The culinary term for testicles of animals, especially
rams; animelles are less popular in Europe today than formerly but
still common in the Middle East; in Italy, animelle means sweetbreads.
anise An herb of Mediterranean origin, highly regarded by the ancient
Greeks and Romans, that tastes like licorice and is used in many parts
of the world; its potent seeds flavor several liqueurs, as well as cheeses, pastries, and confections; not to be confused with fennel.
anitra (It.) Duck.
Anjou A northwest central region of France, around Angers and Saumur, known for its wines, both still and sparkling, and for excellent poultry, flsh from the Loire, and produce, especially pears; Curnonsky, the great gastronome, came from Anjou and praised its cuisine and wine in his writings.
Anna, pommes See pommes Anna.
annatto A red dye from the fruit of a South American tree, used to color cheese, butter, and confectionery. (also see achiote)
annona fruits: see custard apples
antipasto (It.) Literally "before the pasta," an antipasto is an appetizer or starter; antipasti like hors d'oeuvres varies, exist in great variety and profusion.
aonegi (Jap.) Japanese green onion.
aperitif A drink, usually alcoholic, taken before the meal to stimulate the appetite.
Apfel (Ger.) Apple; Apfelstrudel is thin strudel dough filled with apples, white raisins, and spices-a very popular dessert in Germany and Austria.
aphrodisiac A food or drink that arouses the sexual appetite.
Apicius The name of three ancient Romans celebrated for their gluttony, with which their name has become synonymous; a cookbook written by one of them survives in two manuscripts, both ninth-century translations.
appareil (Fr.) A mixture of ingredients ready for use in a preparation, such as an appareil a biscuit.
appellation controlee (Fr.) Two words found on French wine labels, designating a particular wine by its place of origin, grape variety, or district tradition; this control, used for the best French wines, was established in 1935 to guarantee that the wine is what its label claims it to be, and it is strictly enforced by French law. Similar attempts have been made to certify cheese, both by type and by origin. Sometimes abbreviated to AC or AOC.
appellation d'origine (Fr.) The name of a wine, giving its geographic location be it a chateau, vineyard, town, river valley, or general region.
Appenzell (Switz.) A whole-milk cows' cheese made in large wheels, cured, and washed in a brine with white wine and spices, which impart their flavor; the cheese is pale straw-colored with some holes and a yellow brown rind; similar to Emmental, it is firm, buttery, yet piquant.
apple butter A preserve made of apples that have been peeled, cored, and sliced; it is cooked slowly for a long time, usually with sugar, cider, and spices, until it is reduced to a thick, dark spread.
applejack Brandy distilled from fermented cider; Calvados is one type.
apple pandowdy See pandowdy.
apple schnitz Dried apple slices, much used in Pennsylvania German
cooking for such dishes as apple pie and Schnitz un Gnepp (apple
and smoked ham stew with dumplings).
aquavit See akvavit.
Arabian coffee Coffee ground to a powder, spiced with cardamom,
cloves, or even saffron, and drunk without sugar or milk; in Arab
countries, the ceremony of its preparation and service is symbolic
of hospitality.
arabic See gum arable.
arabica A type of coffee tree grown at high altitudes, low yielding but producing the best quality of coffee; see also robusta.
arachide (Fr.) Peanut.
aragosta (It.) Lobster.
arak (Mid. E.) A liqueur made from various plants; strong and anise flavored.
arancia (It.) Orange.
Arborio rice (It.) Short, fat grained Italian rice that is perfect for risotto and similar moist rice dishes.
Arbroath smokies (Scot.) Small haddock that are gutted, salted, and
smoked but not split until broiling before serving.
archiduc, a 1' (Fr.) Seasoned with paprika and blended with cream.
arenque (Sp.) Herring.
Argenteuil (Fr.) Garnished with asparagus; named for a region in
northern France where the best asparagus is grown.
arhar dal (Ind.) Lentils.
aringa (It.) Herring.
arista (It.) Roast loin of pork.
arlesienne, a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with eggplant and tomato, cooked in oil with fried onion rings; there are other garnishes by this name, but all contain tomatoes.
Armagnac A famous brandy from Gascony, in southwestern France,
which can be compared to Cognac; it is dry, smooth, dark, and
armoricaine, a 1' (Fr.) Lobster in the Breton style, after the ancient Roman name for Brittany and often confused with a l'americaine; the sliced lobster is sauteed in olive oil with tomato.
aromatic A plant, such as an herb or spice, that gives off a pleasing scent and is used to flavor food or drink.
arrack See arak.
arroser (Fr.) To baste or moisten.
arrowroot A powdered flour from the root of a tropical plant, used as a flour or thickener; in cooking it remains clear when mixed with other foods, rather than turning cloudy, and is easily digested.
arroz (Sp.) Rice; when cooked and combined with other foods it makes dishes such as arroz con polio, rice with chicken.
arsella (It.) Mussel.
artichaut (Fr.) Artichoke-a favorite French vegetable.
arugula (It.) Rocket.
asado (Sp.) Roasted or broiled.
asciutta See pasta asciutta.
Asiago d'Allevo (It.) A scalded-curd cheese usually made from skimmed evening and whole morning cows' milk and aged up to two years; the large wheels have a thin brownish rind and a smooth pale paste with holes; other Asiago cheeses from Vicenza, Italy, are used mainly as table cheeses.
aspartame A new artificial sweetener, much sweeter than sugar; not
suitable for cooking or use with acids.
asperge (Fr.) Asparagus.
aspic A clear jelly made from meat or vegetable stock and gelatin,
strained, cleared, and chilled; used to dress savory foods of all kinds by covering them in a mold or surrounding them, chopped into cubes, as a garnish; also used for sweet dishes, based on a fruit juice and gelatin aspic.
assaisonner (Fr.) To season; assaisonnement means seasoning, con-
diment, or dressing.
Assam A tea, from the province in northern India of the same name,
which is strong and pungent in character and often blended with
milder teas.
Asti Spumanti A sweet sparkling white wine from the town of Asti in
the Piedmont region of northern Italy.
Asturias (Sp.) A strong, sharp-flavored cheese from northern Spain.
athenienne a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with onion, eggplant, tomato, and
sweet red pepper fried in olive oil.
atemoya: A custurd apple fruit with great potential, the atemoya (Annona atemoya) is a cross between the cherimoya and the sugar apple. It was developed in Florida. The pulp is sweet-tasting and the skin is light-green and bumpy. This fruit travels well.
atole (Mex.) A thin gruel drink varying widely but usually made from cornmeal; it can be flavored with sugar and fruit or chocolate or with chili.
attereau (Fr.) A metal skewer on which sweet or savory food is threaded, breadcrumbed, and deep-fried.
aubergine (Fr.) Eggplant.
Auflauf (Ger.) Souffle.
Aufschnitt (Ger.) A variety of thinly sliced cold meats and sausages sold in German delicatessens; cold cuts.
aurore, a 1' (Fr.) Bechamel sauce colored pink with a small amount
of tomato puree.
Auslese (Ger.) A superior German wine made from particularly ripe
and fine grapes specially picked at harvest and pressed separately
from the other grapes, making a sweeter and more expensive wine.
See also Trockenbeerenauslese.
Ausone, Chateau A famous and very fine Bordeaux wine from
St.-Emilion, a first-growth vineyard.
Auster (Ger.) Oyster.
Auvergne A mountainous region in central France known for its relatively simple, straightforward, robust cooking; the Auvergne is renowned for its fine cheeses, charcuterie, vegetables and fruits, nuts, wild mushrooms, lamb, and freshwater fish.
aveline (Fr.) Hazelnut, filbert.
avgolemono (Gr.) A soup made from egg yolks and lemon juice, com-
bined with chicken stock and rice, that is very popular in the Balkans; also a sauce made from egg yolks and lemon juice.
azafran (Sp.) Saffron.
azucar (Sp.) Sugar.
azuki (Jap.) A dried bean, russet with a white line at the eye, used widely in Japan and prized for its sweet flavor; azuki Hour is used in confections and puddings in Japan and China.


A yeast cake with raisins that is baked in a special cylindrical mold and soaked with syrup and rum or sometimes Kirsch; supposedly
named by Stanislaus 1. Lesczyinski, King of Poland, when he steeped
a Kugelhopf in rum and named it after Ali Baba.
babe ghanoush (Mid. E.) Puree of eggplant flavored with tahini, lemon
juice, olive oil, and garlic; spelled variously.
Babinski, Henry See Ali-Bab.
babka See babe.
bacalhau (Port.) Salt cod; the Spanish spelling is bacalao.
Bacchus The Roman god of wine; Dionysus in Greek mythology.
backen (Ger.) To bake.
Backhuhn, Backhandl (Ger.) Chicken rolled in breadcrumbs, then
Backobst (Ger.) Dried fruit.
Backpflaume (Ger.) Prune.
badaam (Ind.)Almond.
Baden A province in southwest Germany containing the Black Forest
and many vineyards, producing mostly white wines.
bagel An unsweetened yeast bread, traditionally egg less, shaped like a
doughout, cooked first in boiling water, and then baked; often eaten
with lox and cream cheese.
bagna caoda (It.) "Hot sauce"; Piedmont dialect term for bagna cauda.
bagna cauda (It.) A sauce of garlic and anchovies in oil and butter,
served warm with raw vegetables; from Piedmont.
baguette (Fr.) A long cylindrical loaf of French bread.
bai cai (Chin.) Bok choy, literally "white cabbage," a vegetable with
thick white stems and long, narrow, chard like leaves, often used in
stir-fried dishes.
baigan (Ind.) Eggplant.
bain-marie (Fr.) A container of warm water in which a smaller pot
or pots rest, to provide slow even heat and protect the contents from
overheating; a hot-water bath used on the stove or in the oven; a
double boiler is a type of bain-marie.
ba jiao (Chin.) Chinese star anise (literally, "eight points"); this seed from the magnolia family flavors marinades and slowly cooked dishes; although anise flavored, it is no relation to fennel.
bake To cook food by surrounding it with hot dry air in an oven or
on hot stones or metal.
bake blind To bake a pastry shell unfilled; the dough is pricked with
the tines of a fork, fitted with grease-proof paper, filled with dried
beans or rice as a weight, and partially baked.
baked Alaska Ice cream set on sponge cake, the whole masked with
meringue and quickly browned in a hot oven; the air bubbles insulate
the ice cream from the heat.
bakers' cheese Pasteurized skimmed-milk cows' cheese used by bakers
in the U.S.; it is similar to cottage cheese but smoother, softer, and
baking powder A leavening agent for bread and pastry; when moistened,
it produces carbon dioxide to aerate and lighten dough. 'There are
many types, each combining alkaline and acidic material. In double acting baking powder, the chemical action occurs twice, first when
moistened and second when heated.
baking soda Bicarbonate of soda; a leavening agent similar to baking
powder but used with an acid such as sour milk.
baklava (Turk. ) A Middle Eastern sweet pastry made of extremely thin
sheets of phyllo dough layered with chopped nuts and honey syrup,
baked with butter and oil, and cut into diamonds.
balachan, blachan A Malaysian condiment of fermented shrimp or other
seafood with chilies; salty and pungent, it is an acquired taste: spelled variously.
ballotine, ballottine (Fr. ) A large piece of meat, often poultry or
occasionally fish, which is boned, possibly stuffed, rolled or shaped,
braised or roasted, and served hot or cold; ballottine is often confused
with galantine, which is poached and served cold with its own jelly;
also known as dodine.
baloney See mortadella.
balsamella (It.) Bechamel sauce.
balsam pear See bitter melon.
balut (Phil.) A fertilized duck egg nearly ready to hatch; considered
a great delicacy to Filipinos and some Malaysians but an acquired
taste to others.
bamboo A tropical beelike grass whose young shoots are eaten raw,
freshly boiled, or canned in the Orient.
bami goreng (Indon.) See nasi goreng.
banane (Fr.) Banana.
Banbury cake (Brit.) A cake from Oxfordshire, England, of oval flaky
pastry filled with currants, lemon peel, and spices.
banger (Brit.) Slang for sausage that is filled with ground pork and
bannock (Scot.) A traditional Scottish cake of barley, wheat, or oatmeal;
large and round, varying widely according to region.
Banyuls A sweet fortified dessert wine, usually red but also rose or
white; primarily made from the Grenache grape, in the town of the
same name in the eastern French Pyrenees.
bao (<.Chin. ) Abalone.
baobab A central African tree with a very thick trunk; its fruit, calledmonkey bread, is eaten fresh and made into a refreshing, healthful
drink, while its edible leaves are dried and powdered.
bap (Brit.) A small round loaf of soft white bread, eaten in Scotland
and parts of England for breakfast.
bar (Fr.) Sea bass.
baraquille (Fr.) A triangular stuffed pastry hors d'oeuvre.
barbabietola (It.) Beet root; the tops are bietola.
barbacoa (Mex.) Meat cooked in a barbecue pit; also, by extension,
the word often means breakfast.
Barbaresco A renowned red wine from the Italian Piedmont; produced
from the Nebbiolo grape.
barbecue, barbeque A method of cooking marinated food on a grill
or spit over a hardwood, charcoal, or briquette fire; the name also
extends to marinades and social gatherings at such cookouts.
barberry A shrub whose berries are pickled or ripened and made into
various preserves, syrup, and wine; red in color, high in acid; also
called Oregon grapes.
barbue (Fr.) Brill.
bard To tie extra fat, usually bacon, around fish, poultry, or meat to
baste it while cooking. The barding fat is usually removed before serving.
Bardolino A popular red wine made in northern Italy; fruity, light, best drunk young.
barigoule, a la (Fr.) Artichokes blanched, trimmed, stuffed with duxelles, wrapped in bacon, braised in white wine, and served with a reduction of the cooking broth.
Bar-le-Duc A red currant preserve whose name comes from the town in the French Lorraine where it is made.
barley An ancient and hardy grain grown in most climates, but today a staple only in the Middle East. In the modern world barley is used mostly for animal feed and for malt for brewing and distilling; only a small proportion is used for soup, cereal, and bread.
Barolo An Italian red wine from the Piedmont, south of Turin, made from the Nebbiolo grape; deep, full-bodied, and slow-maturing, it is an exceptional wine.
baron In England, a double sirloin of beef roasted for ceremonial occasions; in France, the saddle and two legs of lamb or mutton.
barquette (Fr.) A boat-shaped pastry shell filled and baked as an hors d'oeuvre or sweet; the name sometimes applies to vegetable cases for stuffing, such as zucchini.
Barsac An area within the Sauternes district of Bordeaux that products a white dessert wine that is fairly sweet and fruity.
basil A pungent herb from the mint family used extensively in Mediterranean cooking; the basis of pesto sauce.
basilico (It.) Basil.
bass A name for many fish, not necessarily related, some of which are separately entered under their individual names.
baste To moisten during cooking by spooning liquid over food, in order to prevent drying out and toughness.
batarde (Fr.) A sauce of white roux with water, bound with egg yolks, with butter and lemon juice added; the name means "bastard," 50 called for its indirect relationship to other classic sauces.
Batard-Montrachet A vineyard in Burgundy producing an excellent white wine; small in volume but dry, flavorful, and possessing a fine bouquet, it is made entirely from Chardonnay grapes.
batata (Sp. and Port.) Sweet potato.
baton, batonnet (Fr. ) Shaped like a little stick; vegetables such as potatoes cut in this manner are generally larger than allumettes or julienne.
batter A liquid mixture of flour and milk or water before it is spooned, poured, or dipped for cooking; it can be thick or thin but when no longer liquid it becomes dough.
batter bread See spoon bread.
batterie de cuisine (Fr.) Kitchen utensils.
battuto (It.) A base for soups and stews consisting of diced onion, garlic, celery, and herbs, cooked in oil or pork fat, to which the rest is added; after the battuto is cooked it becomes a soffrito
baudroie (Fr.) Monkfish.
Bauernsuppe (Ger.) A peasant soup of vegetables, legumes, and bacon; the adjective bauern means peasant or country-style.
Baumkuchen (Ger.) A traditional tall Christmas cake, baked in many layers to resemble the rings of a tree trunk, and iced with bark like chocolate.
Bavarian cream A cold custard pudding, often molded into peaks, made from gelatin, eggs, whipped cream, and various sweet flavorings.
bavarois (Fr.. ) Bavarian cream, but not to be confused with the bavaroise drink of sweetened tea enriched with egg yolks and milk and perhaps flavored with citrus.
bavette ( Fr.. ) Tip of sirloin; flank steak.
bay An herb from the laurel family whose dried leaves are an ingredient of the bouquet garni and whose leaves and berries have many medicinal uses; symbolic of intellectual achievement or victory.
bayerisch (Gcr.) Bavarian, of the southern region of West Germany around Munich.
Bayonne A town in the French Pyrenees famous for its fine cured hams.
bean curd See tofu.
bean sprout 'line germinated seed pod of a leguminous plant whose nutritional value is between that of a seed and a vegetable; bean sprouts are eaten fresh or lightly cooked and are appreciated for their crisp texture.
bean threads (Chin.) See fen sit
bearnaise ( Fr.. ) A sauce of the warm emulsion type in classical French cuisine; wine vinegar is reduced with shallots and tarragon, then cooled egg yolks and butter are beaten in and the mixture is strained and finished with chopped tarragon and perhaps chervil; served primarily with grilled meat, fowl, and eggs; one of the classic sauces.
Beaufort ( Fr.. ) A whole-milk cows' cheese from the French Savoy; similar to Gruyere and available year-round.
Beauharnais, a la (Fr..) A classical garnish for tournedos made of stuffed mushrooms, artichoke hearts, chateau potatoes, and Beauharnais sauce (bearnaise with pureed tarragon).
Beaujolais A region in southern Burgundy producing a popular red wine from the Gamay grape; pleasant, fruity, and light, best served cool and drunk young; Beaujolais Nouveau is new Beaujolais wine bottled immediately after fermentation; very light, fruity, and pleasant.
Beaulieu A vineyard in the Napa Valley producing some of the best California wines, especially their Cabernet Sauvignon.
Beaune A city in Burgundy and the center of its wine trade; see Cote d'Or.
becasse (Fr.) Woodcock; the Italian word is beccaccia
bec fin (Fr.) A slang term for a connoisseur of fine food.
bechamel (Fr.) A basic white sauce of milk stirred into a roux, thickened, and flavored with onion.
beche de mer See sea cucumber.
beef Stroganoff Strips of beef sauteed with chopped onions and mushrooms, thickened with sour cream; an American dish.
beef Wellington Fillet topped with duxelles, wrapped in puff pastry, and baked.
beer Any beverage made by the action of yeast on an infusion of malted cereal, brewed, flavored with hops, and fermented.
Beerenauslese (Ger.) A celebrated German wine made from overripe berries selected individually from specially chosen bunches of grapes; a sweet, fruity, intense wine of extraordinary flavor and expense.
Beetensuppe (Ger.) Borsch.
Beeton, Isabella ( 1836-1865) An English journalist and author of The Book of Household Management, which appeared in England in a women's magazine published by her husband (1859-61) and then in book form (1861), with a tremendous and lasting influence; the large scope of Mrs. Beeton's book on domestic economy included estimates of cost, quantities, and preparation times.
beignet (Fr.) Food dipped in batter and fried in deep fat.
Bei jing kao ya (Chin.) Peking duck: an elaborate and famous dish made from specially reared ducks; the bird is inflated with air to dry the skin, then smeared with a honey mixture and hung for a long time to dry again; it is then roasted until crisp, the skin removed to be served separately, and the meat shredded; skin and meat are served together with sliced scallions and cucumbers all rolled up in pancakes spread with a soybean sauce and eaten with the fingers.
Beilagen (Ger.) Accompanying dishes, such as vegetables or salad.
belegtes Brot (Ger.) Sandwich, usually open-faced.
Belgian endive A specially cultivated chicory whose leaves are cut off and shielded from the light, so that new pale yellow leaves grow back in their characteristic cigar shape; used fresh in salads or braised in various preparations; this curious new vegetable was discovered in the last century near Brussels, where it is mostly grown today during fall and winter; also called witloof.
bell pepper See pepper (sweet bell).
Belon oysters Choice oysters from the river of the same name in Brittany.
Bel Paese (It.) A semisoft, mild, uncooked Italian cheese made from
whole cows' milk; it is produced on a large scale and is very popular.
beluga caviar Choicest caviar from the white sturgeon.
Benedictine A liqueur originally made by the monks of that order in
Fecamp, Normandy, based on Cognac and flavored with many herbs
and plants; B & B is a drier combination of Benedictine and brandy.
benne seeds Sesame seeds, brought from Africa with the slave trade
and used especially in the Black cooking of South Carolina, often to
symbolize happiness.
Bercy (Fr. ) A classic fish sauce of white wine and fish fumes reduced
with shallots and finished with butter and parsley; also made with
meat glaze and beef marrow for grilled meat.
bergamot A bitter, pear-shaped orange whose skin is used for its essential oil in perfume-making; also the name of a pear and a type of mint.
Bergkase (Ger.) A hard yellow cheese from the Bavarian Alps; this is
really a generic name for various cooked pressed cheeses from the
Berliner Weisse (Ger.) A pale, tart ale made from wheat and low in
alcohol; often drunk with a dash of raspberry syrup for refreshment.
Bernkastel A town in the Moselle region of West Germany with some
of the region's best vineyards, all estate-bottled wines.
betterave (Fr.) Beetroot.
beurre blanc (Fr.) A sauce of white wine and shallots reduced, thickened with butter, and served warm with seafood, poultry, or vegetables.
beurre Chivry (Fr.) A compound butter flavored with parsley, tarragon,
chives, and shallots.
beurre manic (Fr.) Flour and butter, usually in equal proportion,
kneaded together into a paste to thicken sauces and gravies; the flour
can be browned or not.
beurre noir (Fr.) A sauce of butter cooked until brown, often flavored
with chopped parsley, capers, and vinegar; served with fish or brains.
bhara, bharva (Ind.) Stuffed.
bhojia (Ind.) Vegetables stir-fried and highly spiced.
bhona (Ind.)Fried.
bicarbonate of soda See baking soda.
bicchiere (It.) A measuring glass roughly equivalent to one cup.
biem cult (Fr.) Well done, as for steak.
Bierwurst (Ger.) A fat sausage of pork, pork fat, and beef, dark reddish brown in color.
bietola (It.) Swiss chard.
bigarade (Fr.) A classic brown sauce for roast duck made of caramelized sugar, lemon and orange juice, stock, and deml-glace, with blanched zest.
bigos (Pol.) A hunter's stew of sauerkraut with sausages, bacon, mushrooms, red wine, and meat (usually venison).
bilberry A small berry similar to the blueberry but usually smaller and tarter, with the same silvery cast; used for pies, jams, etc.; native to Europe, especially Northern Europe.
Billy Bi (Fr.) Mussel soup with cream and white wine, originally created for a customer at Maxim's without the mussels themselves, but now usually served with them.
bind To hold together by means of a liaison.
Bingen A wine town of Hessia, West Germany, overlooking the Rhine and Nahe Rivers, producing excellent white wines.
bird's nest See yen cad.
bird's nest fryer A hinged double wire basket for deep-frying straw potato nests to be filled with other food, such as peas.
Birne (Ger.) Pear.
biryani (Ind.) A substantial rice dish, variously prepared, similar to pilaf.
Bischofsbrot (Ger.) An Austrian cake containing dried fruit and choc-orate drops.
biscuit A small flat cake, usually round and unsweetened, originally double-baked (see zwieback), hence its name; the term now covers a wide variety of small cakes and breads.
biscuit de Savoie (Fr.) A sponge cake from Savoy, often baked in a brioche parisienne mold and served with fruit.
biscuits a La cuillere (Fr.) Ladyfingers; so named because before the invention of the pastry bag they were shaped by dropping the dough from a spoon.
biscuit tortoni See tortoni.
bishop A mulled wine drink, often made with port or champagne, flavored with orange and lemon, cinnamon, clove, and other spices; a traditional drink in England and northern Europe.
Biskote (Ger.) ladyfinger.
Bismarck herring Herring that are marinated in vinegar, filleted and split, seasoned with onion, and eaten with sour cream.
bisque A thick soup puree, often made from shellfish to which the pulverized shells are added. Originally a poultry or game soup, bisque has gradually come to mean a puree, thickened perhaps with cream.
bitter melon A gourd vegetable, quite sour in flavor, with a ridged rind resembling a furrowed cucumber, used in Malaysian and Oriental cooking. Also called balsam pear.
bitters A liquid, usually alcoholic, steeped with aromatic herbs and roots and used as a tonic or as a flavoring for alcoholic drinks.
Bitto A cows' milk cheese from Sondrio in Italy which is aged from two
months to three years and used as a table or grating cheese; it is
popular in Italy grated or sprinkled on top of polenta with butter.
bivalve A mollusk with two hinged shells, such as a clam, mussel, or
bizcochos borrachos (Sp.) Sponge cakes sugared, splashed with wine,
and sprinkled with cinnamon.
black bass A freshwater fish of several varieties, both small mouth and large mouth, with firm, lean meat; suitable for most kinds of cooking.
black bean A common bean variety, black, shiny, and sweet; this dried
bean is a staple food in Central and South America, especially in rice
dishes, stews, frijoles refritos, and in the southern United States, as
in black bean soup.
black butter See beurre noir.
black-eyed pea A white pea with a black eye, brought to the southern
United States from Africa in the seventeenth century with the slave
trade; a favorite bean in Black American cooking, either fresh or dried,
and an essential ingredient in dishes such as hopping John.
Black Forest A wooded, mountainous region of southwestern West Ger-
many, producing a strongly flavored smoked ham; its name also des-
ignates a rich chocolate cake (see Schwarzwalder Kirschtorte).
black pepper See pepper (black).
black pudding See blood sausage.
black sea bass A small mid Atlantic warm-weather fish; its lean, delicate white flesh is suitable for most cooking methods and is widely used in Chinese cuisine.
blackstrap Dark, heavy, strong molasses originally made in the West
Indies and considered low-quality but nutritious and flavorful for
certain uses.
blakhan (Indon.) A salty and pungent shrimp paste, related to the
Philippine balachan and other Oriental fermented fish condiments.
blanc (Fr.) Cooking stock or court bouillon in which certain foods,
such as artichokes, are cooked to retain their color; it usually includes a little flour mixed with water; lemon juice and butter or oil are sometimes included.
blanc de blancs (Fr.) A white Champagne wine made from white
blanch To immerse vegetables, fruit, or meat in boiling water briefly,
then plunge into cold water to stop cooking; this technique is used
to firm or soften flesh, to set color, to peel off skin, or to remove
raw flavor.
blancmange A medieval or older jellied mixture originally made of
pulverized almonds and veal stock spiced and sweetened; blancmange
has changed over the centuries into a kind of pudding or custard.
blanquette (Fr.) A stew of veal, chicken, or lamb, braised in stock.
thickened with egg yolks and cream, and garnished with mushrooms
and small white onions; the sauce is always white.
ble (Fr.) Wheat.
blending Mixing wines of different qualities or origins to produce a
better wine or to give consistency; usually an honorable practice but
sometimes unscrupulous.
bleu (Fr.) Very rare, as for steak; rarer than a point.
bleu, au (Fr.) A method of preparing trout or other fish whereby the
fish is killed immediately before being plunged into a boiling court
bouillon with vinegar, which turns the skin bluish and curls the
body of the fish.
Bleu d'Auvergue (Fr.) A whole-milk cows' cheese made in several
areas in the French Auvergne; it is a soft, unpressed blue cheese with
a distinctive flavor.
blind Huhn (Ger.) A casserole of beans, vegetables, dried apples, and
blind (Russ.) Pancakes, usually of buckwheat flour, often served with
sour cream and caviar.
bloater (Brit.) Inshore herring that are lightly salted and smoked, then gutted only just before serving.
Blockwurst (Ger.) A sausage of beef and pork, similar to salami.
blond de veau (Fr.) White veal stock; blond de volaille means clear
chicken stock.
blondir (Fr.) To cook lightly in fat.
blood sausage A sausage colored black and flavored with blood and
diced pork fat from fresh-killed pigs.
bloom The wax coating, which appears on several fresh fruits and vegetables, which protect the fruit from the direct rays of the sun; such as blueberries.
blue cheese Cheese injected with a mold such as Penicillium roqueforti
(from Roquefort, the oldest cheese of the genre), which gives the
cheese its characteristic flavor and blue green veining; there are many
varieties, some of which are individually noted.
blue crab A variety of crab found on the Chesapeake Bay, eastern
Atlantic, and Gulf coastlines, best appreciated in the form of soft shell crab.
bluefish A voracious fish found off the North American east coast and
in the Mediterranean; its oily and flavorful flesh takes well to assertive seasonings and accompaniments; best for baking, broiling and smoking.
Blue Point A species of oyster found off the coast of long Island usually served raw.
Blumenkohl (Ger.) Cauliflower.
Blutwurst (Ger.) Blood sausage.
Bock (Ger.) A strong Bavarian beer usually dark.
bodega (Sp.) A wine cellar or store.
boeuf a la bourguignonne (Fr.) See bourguignonne, a la.
bogavante (Sp,) Large clawed lobster.
Bohne (Ger.) Bean.
boil To cook in liquid at or above the boiling point ( 100 Celsius, 212 Fahrenheit), when liquid bubbles and evaporates into steam; a rolling boil is a vigorous boil.
boiled dinner See New England boiled dinner.
bok choy See bai cad.
boletus A genus of wild mushroom of which the bolete, cepe, or porcino,
as it is variously known, is best known and most prized; with a thick
fleshy cap and stem, the cepe grows in chestnut and oak woods from
June to November and is eaten fresh and dried; not to be confused
with other species.
bollito (It.) Boiled; refers especially to mixed boiled meats.
bologna See mortadella.
bolognese, alla (It.) See ragu bolognese.
Bombay duck An Indian fish (bombil) that is dried and used to flavor
curry dishes.
bombe (Fr. ) Ice cream that is layered and packed into a special mold,
originally shaped like- a bomb.
bonbon (Fr.) Candy, sweet.
Boniatos: A tuber that looks like a sweet potato, but larger and sweeter.
bonito A small member of the tuna family; often used in Japanese cooking dried, salted, or flaked.
bonne femme, a la (Fr.) Prepared in a simple home style, often ac-
companied by small onions and mushrooms, in a white wine sauce
flavored with lemon juice.
boqueron (Sp.) Anchovy or whitebait.
borage An herb, Mediterranean in origin, used to flavor vegetables and beverages; its flowers are made into fritters, its young leaves are used in salads, and its mature leaves are cooked like spinach and finely chopped.
Bordeaux A seaport city and capital of the Gironde on the Garonne
River in southwest France; the Bordeaux region is famous for the
large quantity of red and white wine it produces, some of it very
Bordeaux fine, a la (Fr.) Garnished with a reduction sauce of red or white wine with bone- marrow and chopped parsley; with cepes added; with
mirepoix; or a garnish of artichokes and potatoes.
borek ( Turk. ) A very thin pastry filled with savory stuffing, folded or rolled up, and fried or baked.
borlotto bean A common bean variety, usually dried; this splotched
brown bean is especially popular in Italy where it is cooked to a
creamy puree or added to soups.
borracha, salsa (Mex.) Literally "drunken sauce"; made with pasilla
chilies, orange juice, onion, and tequila.
borsch, borscht (Pol. and Russ.) A soup based on fresh beets (which
impart their vibrant color), meat broth, and winter vegetables, and
often flavored with kvass; the soup varies widely but is always served
with sour cream; traditional for Christmas Eve, without meat.
Boston baked beans Navy beans flavored with molasses and salt pork
and baked in an earthenware pot; originally prepared on Saturday
and cooked in a communal oven to allow Puritan housewives to
observe the Sabbath-hence Boston's nickname of Bean Town.
Boston brown bread A traditional accompaniment to Boston baked
beans, this rye bread is flavored with molasses and often contains
whole wheat and cornmeal; the dark sweet bread is steamed, usually
in baking powder tins.
botifarra (Sp.) Blood sausage.
Botrytis cinerea See noble rot.
bottom round See round.
bouchee (Fr.) A small puff-pastry savory, literally a "mouthful," filled variously.
boucher (Fr.) Butcher.
bouchon (Fr.) Cork.
boudin noir (Fr.) Blood sausage.
bouillabaisse (Fr.) This famous specialty from Marseilles, originally ahearty fisherman's stew, is made from a wide variety of native fish
and shellfish and flavored with saffron; the exact recipe is hotly disputed.
bouillir (Fr.) To boil.
bouillon (Fr. ) Stock or broth that forms the basis of soups and sauces; it can be made from vegetables, poultry, or meat boiled in water, depending on its use, and need not contain gelatin.
boulage (Fr.) Shaping the dough in baking.
boulanger (Fr.) Baker.
boulangere, a la (Fr.) Garnished with braised onion and potato.
boule de neige (Fr.) A dessert pastry resembling snowballs (hence
the name), of round cakes dipped in whipped cream; made in individual
servings. .
bouquet (Fr.) The aroma of wine, which gives it much of its character
and charm.
bouquet garni (Fr.) A bunch of herbs tied together in a small bundle
for flavoring a dish as it cooks and removed before serving; it usually
includes parsley, thyme, and bay leaf, among other herbs.
bouquetiere, a la (Fr.) Meat garnished with vegetables that are arranged in bouquets.
bourgeoise, a la (Fr.) Braised meat garnished with carrots onions,
and diced bacon.
Bourgogne (Fr.) Burgundy.
bourguignonne, a la (Fr.) Served with a red wine sauce garnished with mushrooms, small onions, and diced bacon.
bourride (Fr.) A fish stew from Provence, similar to bouillabaisse, served on a croute, and flavored with aioli.
boysenberry A hybrid cultivar of the blackberry that tastes like a raspberry, developed early in this century and named after an American, Rudolf Boysen.
braciola (It.) Cutlet or chop.
Bragenwurst (Ger.) Smoked sausage of pig's brains, oats, flour, and onions; long and thin.
brains Usually from a calf or lamb, brains should first be blanched in acidulated water, then poached in a court bouillon or fried in butter; often served with beurre noir or noisette.
braise To cook in a small amount of flavored liquid in a tightly covered pan over low heat.
bran The thin brown outer covering of the wheat grain, which is removed during the refining of white flour; although bran is not absorbed into the body during digestion, its fiber, usually eaten in baked goods and breakfast cereal, is beneficial.
brandade (Fr.) A salt-cod dish from Provence in which cod is pounded with olive oil, milk, and garlic into a thick, flavorful puree and served with croutes; the name derives from the Provencal word for stirred; see also morue.
brandy A spirit distilled from wine (types of brandy are separately entered ).
brasato (It.) Braised.
Braten (Ger.) A cut of meat roasted in the oven or braised on the stove.
Brathering (Ger.) Herring that is grilled or floured and fried, then pickled in a boiled vinegar marinade; usually served cold.
Bratwurst (Ger.) A sausage of spiced pork, fried or grilled; very popular.
Braunschweiger (Ger.) Liver sausage.
brawn See head cheese.
Brazil nut The nut of a tall tree indigenous to the Amazon and growing mostly in the wild. The woody pod, looking something like a coconut, contains up to twenty seeds whose segments fit together in their husks; the nut is white, creamy, and high in fat. The tree grows only in Brazil and, curiously, almost all of the nuts are exported.
breadfruit The fruit of a tree native to the Pacific; large, round, and starchy, it is eaten boiled or baked; sometimes confused with its blander-tasting relative, jackfruit
bread sauce (Brit.) A sauce of milk thickened with bread crumbs; served with poultry and game.
bream Several different species of fish, including the excellent Medi-
terranean gilthead and the American porgy.
bresaola (It.) Dried salt beef sliced from the fillet, served as an antipasto; a specialty of northern Lombardy.
Bresse A region in southern Burgundy famous for its excellent chickens
and for its blue cheese, Bleu de Bresse.
bretonne, a la (Fr.) Garnished with fresh white haricot beans.
brewer's yeast See yeast.
brick A scalded-curd, surface-ripened whole-milk cows' cheese first madin Wisconsin; it is shaped in bricks and also weighted with bricks
during pressing, hence its name; the taste and texture is between
Cheddar and Liederkranz.
brider (Fr.) To truss.
Brie A soft uncooked cows' milk cheese from the region of the same
name east of Paris; made in large flat discs, this cheese, with its white, surface-ripened rind and smooth buttery interior, is made similarly to Camembert and is renowned for its fine aroma and taste.
brill A member of the flounder family.
Brillat-Savarin, Jean Anthelme (1755 - 1826) A French lawyer and
magistrate who is remembered today for his great treatise on gas-
tronomy, the Physiology of Taste, published in 1825.
brinjal (Ind.) Eggplant.
brioche (Fr.) A cake or pastry made from a rich yeast dough containing
butter and eggs, often baked in a characteristic fluted mold with a
smaller knob on top (brioche parisienne), as well as in various other
shapes and sizes.
brisket A cut of beef from the lower forequarter, between the foreshanks and short plate; usually braised or cured for corned beef.
brisling The sprat, a small fish similar to the herring.
Brittany A province in northwest France noted for its fresh and saltwater fish and shellfish, Muscadet wine, cider, and many other foods.
broa (Sp.) Cornbread.
broad bean See fava.
broche, a la (Fr.) Spit-roasted.
brochet (Fr.) Pike.
brochette (Fr.) A skewer for grilling pieces of food.
brodo (It.) Broth or bouillon; brodo ristretto is consomme.
Brolio A celebrated and ancient vineyard in the Italian Chianti district in Tuscany; the wine is robust and long-lived.
bronzing (It.) Sea bass.
Broschen (Ger.) Sweetbreads.
Brot (Ger.) Bread.
brou (Fr.) A liqueur made from walnut husks.
brouille (Fr.) Scrambled.
Brouilly A wine-producing district in Beaujolais with one of the best
wines of that type.
brown To cook by high heat, causing the surface of the food to turn
dark and imparting a richer, cooked flavor; browning affects the outside
of food only, leaving the inside moist; it can be achieved by sauteing,
frying, grilling, or heating under a broiling unit; see also caramel.
brown betty An American pudding made of sliced fruit thickened with
breadcrumbs, sweetened, and baked; usually made with apples.
brown sauce See espagnole.
brown sugar Refined sugar with a thin coating of molasses; not to be
confused with raw, unrefined sugar.
brule (Fr.) Burned or flamed, as in burnt-brandy or creme brulee.
brunoise (Fr.) A mixture of vegetables cut into small dice and cooked
slowly in butter for soups, sauces, etc.; batonnets cut across into
cubes make brunoise.
Brunswick stew A Southern American stew originally made with squirrel
or whatever game was available, but now mostly made with chicken
and a variety of vegetables.
bruschetta (It.) Bread slices toasted, rubbed with garlic, and dribbled with new green olive oil; a specialty of Rome.
brut Very dry Champagne to which virtually no sugar has been added;
drier than "extra dry."
bruxelloise, a la (Fr.) Garnished with Brussels sprouts, braised endives, and chateau potatoes and served with a Madeira sauce.
Bual A type of Madeira, golden in color and quite sweet, now usually
drunk as a dessert wine; the name comes from the particular grape
bubble and squeak (Brit.) Boiled meat, usually beef, fried with cabbage and sometimes potatoes.
buche de Noel (Fr.) Literally Yule log; the traditional French gateau
for Christmas, made of genoise and buttercream and decorated to
look like a log.
buckwheat flour Not a true cereal, buckwheat flour is made from dry
fruit seeds of the plant; most popular in Russia (see blind), buckwheat
is made into pancakes and special breads (sometimes mixed with
wheat ) hut mostly used for fodder; also called saracen wheat or
saracen corn.
budin (Sp.) Pudding; the Italian word is budino.
bue (It.) Beef; the Spanish word is buey.
buffalo fish A freshwater American fish with sweet, white, lean flesh;
a type of sucker, the buffalo is similar to carp and versatile in cooking.
bulghur (Mid. E.) Cracked wheat, hulled and parboiled, originally Per-
sian; this nutty-textured cereal is ground in different grades for various dishes such as tabbouleh, kibbeh, and pilaf; also spelled bulgur
and burghul
bullabesa (Sp.) Fish stew of Catalonia; a cousin of bouillabaisse.
Bundnerfleisch (Switz.) Cured, dried beef sliced very thin.
bullock's heart: Not as good in flavor as the other varieties of custurd apples. The appearance of bullock's heart (Annona reticulata) is suggested by its name. It has a brownish-red skin with a scaly surface and the pulp is sweet and granular.
bunuelo (Sp.) Fritter.
A large plant whose leaves, young shoots, and roots are used
for food and drink; much favored in Japan, where it is known as
burghul See bulghur.
burgoo A thick stew, originally a porridge for sailors, later containing many different meats and vegetables and thickened with okra; associated with the southern United States and Kentucky.
Burgos (Sp ) A fresh ewes' milk cheese, from the Spanish province of
the same name; mild, soft, and pleasant, often served for dessert; the
rind less discs weigh approximately three pounds.
Burgundy A province southeast of Paris, famous for its red and white
wines; Beaujolais, Chablis, Pouilly-Fuisse, and those of the Cote
d'Or, separately entered, are the best known.
burnet An herb whose leaves, which taste like cucumber, are used to
flavor salads, cool drinks, vinegar, and sauces.
burrida (It.) A fish stew from Genoa (a cousin of bourride)
burrito (Sp.) A taco of wheat rather than maize (tortilla), folded to
enclose a filling.
burro (It.) Butter.
Busserl (Ger.) Small round sweet pastries, literally "kiss."
buta (Jap. ) Pork.
butter bean Lima bean.
buttercream A mixture of butter, sugar, and egg yolks or custard, flavored in a wide variety of ways and used to ice or garnish dessert pastriesand cakes.
butterfly To cut open and spread the sides apart ( as with butterfly wings ), especially for a piece of meat or fish.
buttermilk The residue from churned butter, containing the milk casein, which has a slightly sour flavor; buttermilk is easily digested and is often used with baking soda for breads and pastries; nowadays usually made from a culture.
Cabernet (Fr.) A grape variety that partly makes up red Bordeaux
wines and many of the world's best clarets; Cabernet Sauvignon,
higher in tannin, is slower maturing and longer lasting than Cabernet;
Cabernet Franc is more productive.
Cabernet Rose d'Anjou (Fr.) A rose wine, of the Cabernet Franc
grape, from the Loire Valley.
cabillaud (Fr.) Fresh cod; see also morue.
cabinet See Kabinett.
cabra (Sp.) Goat.
Cabrales (Sp.) A blue veined cheese from northern Spain; usually made
from goats' milk but sometimes from cows' and sheep's milk; earthy,
pungent, yet mellow in flavor; sometimes called Picon.
cabrito (Sp.) Kid.
cacao A tree from whose seeds, fermented, roasted, and ground, come
chocolate and cocoa; native to South America, it now grows in many
tropical countries around the globe.
cacciagione (It.) Game.
cacciatore (It.) Hunter's style: in a sauce of mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, and herbs with wine.
Caciocavallo (It.) A whole-milk cows' cheese, spindle-shaped and tied with string, from southern Italy; made by the spun-curd method. Table cheeses are aged for two months, grating cheeses up to twelve, and their flavor ranges from delicate and sweet to more pungent with age; this pale straw-colored cheese is used for eating and cooking and is sometimes smoked.
Caen, a la mode de (Fr.) A classic preparation for tripe in which blanched squares of tripe are slowly braised with onions, carrots, leeks, blanched ox feet, herbs, garlic, brandy, and white wine; it is cooked for twelve hours in a hermetically sealed marmite.
Caerphilly (Brit.) A cows' milk cheese, mild, crumbly, moist, and slightly sour; the traditional lunch of the Welsh coal miners, it is now mostly made in western England rather than Wales.
Caesar salad Romaine lettuce with croutons, coddled eggs, and grated Parmesan cheese in an olive oil vinaigrette flavored with garlic and Worcestershire sauce; anchovies are often added; created in 1924 by Caesar Cardini, an Italian restaurateur in Tijuana.
cafe au lait (Fr.) Coffee with hot milk; the Italian term is caffe latte.
Cahors (Fr.) A fine red wine from the city of the same name in Toulouse, made from the Malbec grape; very dark red, slow maturing, long lasting.
cai juan (Chin.) Egg roll; a square crepe like wrapper made from an egg, flour, and water batter, usually stuffed with pork, cabbage, or other vegetables, rolled up, and deep-fried or steamed, or sometimes shredded for garnishing; the egg roll, very popular in Cantonese American cooking, is thicker and less elegant than the spring roll and should not be confused with it.
caille (Fr.) Quail.
Cajun Originally, this term pertained to the French Canadian settlers in Louisiana, a corruption of Acadia (from the colony of Acadia in southeastern Canada); (.Cajun cooking combines French methods with rural southern ingredients and is often confused with Creole; gumbo and jambalaya are typical dishes of this unique cuisine.
calabacita (Sp.) Zucchini.
calabaza (Sp.) Pumpkin.
calabash See passion fruit.
calamaro (It.) Squid.
Caldaro A town in the Italian Tirol that produces a number of light and pleasant red and white wines.
calderada (Sp.) A thick Galician fish stew similar to bouillabaisse.
caldereta (Sp.) A meat or fish stew, whose name derives from the cauldron or pot in which it is cooked.
caldo (It.) Hot; in Spanish and Portuguese, caldo means broth.
caliente (Sp.) Hot.
Californian chili (Mex.) See guero.
callaloo (Carib.) The leafy green tops of the taro plant, cooked into a spicy vegetable stew with okra, eggplant, tomatoes, onions, garlic,
chilies, herbs, salt pork or other meat, coconut milk, and sometimes
crab; a popular and variable native dish related to Creole crab gumbo;
also spelled calalou and callilu.
calmer (Fr.) Squid.
Calvados Apple brandy from the town of the same name in Normandy.
calzone (It.) A turnover made of pizza dough and stuffed with various
savory fillings, usually in individual portions; originally from Naples
and now popular in the U.S.
camaron (Sp.) Shrimp.
Cambridge sauce A mayonnaise like sauce of hard-boiled egg yolks,
anchovies, capers, herbs, mustard, vinegar, and oil, finished with
chopped parsley.
Camembert (Fr.) A cows' milk cheese, soft and creamy with a white
mold rind; from the town of the same name in Normandy; neither
cooked nor pressed, this rich cheese in four-inch rounds is very
popular and famous and, at its best-farmhouse cheese from unpas-
teurized milk-superb.
camote (Sp.) Sweet potato.
campagnola (It.) Country style, usually with onions and tomatoes.
canape (Fr.) A small piece of bread spread or garnished with savory
food and served as an hors d'oeuvre.
canard sauvage (Fr.) Wild duck.
caneton (Fr.) Duckling.
cangrejo (Sp.) Crab.
canneberge (Fr.) Cranberry.
cannella (It.) Cinnamon; the French word is cannelle.
cannellini (It.) White kidney beans.
cannelloni (It.) Pasta squares usually boiled, stuffed, rolled, and baked in a sauce.
cannoli (It.) Pastry tubes or horns filled with ricotta cheese, chocolate, and candied citron.
Cantal (Fr.) A cows' milk cheese from the Frcnch Auvergne, uncooked,
pressed, and cured for three months; similar to Cheddar, this ancient
cheese, known by the Romans, is cylindrical in shape with a nutty,
full flavor.
cantaloupe See muskmelon.
Cantenac A town in the Medoc region of France that produces several
excellent clarets.
capeado (Sp.) Dipped in batter and fried.
capelli dangelo (It.) Angel hair pasta; the thinnest pasta, almost too fine to cut by hand. This pasta has recently become popular with the
health-conscious, putting a new twist on the old riddle: which weighs
less, a pound of angel hair or a pound of macaroni?
caper The bud or young fruit of a climbing plant, native to Africa and
the Mediterranean, which is pickled to make a condiment; nasturtium
buds or seeds are sometimes substituted.
capitolade (Fr.) Cooked chicken or other food, chopped and served
in a sauce; a kind of chicken hash.
capitone (It.) Iarge conger eel.
capon A castrated male chicken, whose flesh is well fattened (it gains
up to ten pounds in as many months ). Capon is prepared like chicken,
although its flesh has a distinctive taste of its own.
caponata (It.) A Sicilian vegetable salad of fried eggplant, onions, olives, anchovies, capers, and tomatoes.
cappelleffl (It.) Small squares of pasta stuffed and shaped like little hats, hence their name; very similar to tortellini.
cappone (It.) (.apon.
cappuccino (It.) Espresso coffee with hot frothy milk, often dusted
with cocoa powder or cinnamon.
capretto (It.) Kid.
capsicum See chili.
carambola A fruit (commonly referred to as star fruit), native to Malaysia and pale yellow green, with five pointed ridges around the central core. It is star-shaped when sliced across.
caramel Sugar dissolved in water and cooked to a rich dark brown
color; caramelized sugar is used in candy, desserts, stocks, and sauces.
caraway An herb in the parsley family whose anise-flavored seeds are
used in making cheese, bread, and pastry, and whose milder leaves
are used in cooking; a staple seasoning in German and Hungarian
carbonado (Sp.) A beef stew from Argentina combining apples, pears,
tomatoes, onions, and potatoes.
carbonara, alla (It.) A spaghetti sauce with bacon, eggs, Parmesan
cheese, and (usually) cream.
carbonnade a la flamande ( Bell ) A beef stew from Flanders flavored
with bacon, onions, and a little brown sugar, and simmered in beer.
The term carbonnade originally referred to meat cooked over charcoal.
carciofo (It.) Artichoke.
cardamom A spice of the ginger family whose pungent seeds are dried
and used in Oriental, Indian, and Middle Eastern cooking.
cardinal, a la (Fr.) A fish garnish of bechamel sauce flavored with
truffle essence, lobster buner and slices, and cayenne pepper; cardinal
sometimes refers to a brilliant red dessert sauce of pureed raspberries,
strained and sweetened.
cardoon A vegetable cultivated for its stalks and tender leaves; closely related to the artichoke, although it looks different.
Careme, Antonin ( 1784 - 1833) A French chef who, by organizing the
workings of the professional kitchen and thus grand classical cuisine,
is regarded as its founder; Careme worked for many great patrons,
but his fame rests mostly on his erudite books; see also piece montee
and sauce.
card (Fr.) Curry.
carmine A red dye used for food coloring, obtained from the female
cochineal insect.
came (It. and Sp.) Meat.
carob An evergreen tree whose pods are eaten both fresh and dried;
high in sugar and protein, carob is used for confectionery (often as
a chocolate substitute) and in pharmaceuticals and animal feed; carob
may be the biblical locusts-a mistranslation of locust bean-that
St. John ate in the desert.
caroline (Fr. ) A small savory eclair stuffed and eaten as an hors d'oeuvre.
carp A freshwater fish found in Asian, European, and American waters
which, unless farmed, tends to live in muddy water; it is cooked and
used in many ways, including gefilte fish.
carpaccio (It.) Very thin slices of raw beef fillet served with mustard sauce, mayonnaise, or olive oil and lemon juice.
carrageen, carragheen Commonly known as "Irish moss," really a
seaweed that grows wild along the north Atlantic shore; the red plant
is eaten fresh or dried, when it is bleached almost whitc; used in
sweet and savory dishes and as an excellent source of gelatin.
carre d'agneau (Fr.) Loin or rack of lamb; carre, literally "square,"
can also mean best end of neck, sometimes of veal or pork as well
as lamb or mutton.
carrots a la Vichy (Fr.) Sliced carrots cooked, if possible, in Vichy
mineral water, with butter, a little sugar, and salt until glazed, and
garnished with chopped parsley.
casaba A large winter melon or muskmelon with yellow ribbed skin and
very pale flesh.
casalinga (It.) Homemade.
cascabel (Mex.) A small, round, dried chili pepper with a smooth
reddish brown skin, about one inch across and fairly hot; its name
(literally, rattlesnake) refers to its rattle.
cashew A kidney-shaped nut of an Amazonian tree much favored in
South American, Indian, and Asian cooking; the nut is attach to an
applelike false fruit; wine, vinegar, and liqueur are made from the
casing The intestinal membrane that is cleaned and stuffed with sausage
forcemeat; a synthetic tubing used similarly.
cassata (It.) Ice cream molded in contrastingly colored layers with
candied fruits soaked in liqueur; also a rich chocolate dessert from
Sicily combining layers of sponge cake and ricotta with candied fruits.
cassava See tapioca.
cassia A type of cinnamon often confused with cinnamon proper when
sold in powdered form, as in the U.S.; cassia is reddish brown, cinnamon
a lighter tan.
cassis (Fr.) Black currant; a liqueur made from black currants is called creme de cassis and it is used alone or mixed to make aperitifs such as Kir-white wine colored with a few drops of cassis-or Kir
royale, made with Champagne.
cassoulet (Fr.) A stew of dried haricot beans baked with various meats
(usually pork and mutton), preserved goose or duck, onions, etc., in
an earthenware pot; from the Languedoc region.
castagna (It.) Chestnut.
caster sugar (Brit.) Superfine sugar.
catalane, a la (Fr.) Garnished with sauteed eggplant and rice pilaf,
and sometimes also with tomatoes.
catfish A fresh- and saltwater fish with a slick, scaleless skin, sharp, poisonous spines, and "whiskers" (hence its name); the catfish is very popular in the southern United States where it is increasingly farmed; cooked in various ways, especially deep-fried, usually pan-dressed, steaked, or filleted.
caudle (Brit.) A hot spiced drink, often including wine or ale, with a
cereal base; a favorite cold-weather beverage in England and Scotland.
caul The thin, fatty membrane, like netted lace, from a pig's or sheep's intestines; used to contain and cover pates, roasts, etc.; the fat melts away during cooking.
cave (Fr.) Wine cellar.
caviar Sturgeon roe, especially beluga, but loosely used for other fish roe.
cavolfiore (It.) Cauliflower.
cavolo (It.) Cabbage.
cayenne pepper Red chili pepper, dried and ground fine; in Mexico
this pepper, about three inches long, is widely available fresh year-
cazuela (Sp.) Earthenware casserole.
cebiche (Sp.) See seviche.
cebolla (Sp.) Onion.
Cebreto (Sp.) A blue-veined cheese with a creamy texture and yellow
ceci (It. and Sp.) Chick-peas, garbanzo beans.
celeriac Celery root-a variety of celery cultivated for its fat, bulbous root rather than its stalks; best when peeled and shredded for salads and hors d'oeuvre.
cellophane noodles See fen sit
cena (It. and Sp.) Supper.
cepe (Fr.) See boletus.
cerdo (Sp.) Pork.
cerfeuil (Fr.) Chervil.
cerise (Fr.) Cherry.
cervelas (Fr.) A sausage of pork meat and fat (and formerly brains),
flavored with garlic; also called saucisson de Paris; some nouvelle
cuisine seafood sausages are called cervelas.
cervelles (Fr. ) Brains.
cerveza (Sp.) Beer.
cervo (It.) Venison.
cetriolo (It.) Cucumber.
Chabichou (Fr.) A goats' milk cheese from Poitou, France, small and
conical or cylindrical in shape, soft and mild in flavor; also called
Chablis (Fr.) A small town and its environs in Burgundy, southeast of
Paris, producing a well-known white wine of the same name from
the Chardonnay grape; dry, clean, "flinty," pale-colored, it can vary
widely in quality; in other countries, the term Chablis has little
chafing dish A metal pan or dish heated from below with a flame, hot
coals, or electricity, for warming or cooking food; from the French
word chauffer, to heat.
chain (Ind.)Tea.
challah (Jew.) Traditional Sabbath bread, made with oil, water, egg
yolks, and honey, and baked in a braided loaf; for holidays it is often
baked in a braided knot or spiral with raisins.
chalupa (Mcx.) A boat-shaped tortilla, stuffed variously.
Chambertin A vineyard in the Cote d'Or producing exceptional red
Burgundy; ancient and celebrated, it is well worth its expense;
Alexandre Dumas, who was not a wine drinker, wrote that "nothing
makes the future look so rosy as to contemplate it through a glass of
Chambolle-Musigny A village in the Cote d'Or of Burgundy that pro-
duces delicate, aromatic, and excellent red wines.
chambrer (Fr.) To bring wines up from the cellar to allow them to
rise to room temperature before serving.
Champagne Sparkling white wine from the French region of Champagne,
made by a specific process from particular grapes, strictly delineated
by law; properly speaking, only these wines should be called Cham-
pagne, although the term is used loosely, especially in California.
champignon (Fr.) Mushroom.
channa (Ind.) Chick-peas.
chanterelle (Fr.) A wild mushroom, yellow and trumpet-shaped with
a ruffled edge; before being used in cooking, chanterelles are heated
with salt in a covered pan to disgorge their liquid and then drained.
Chantilly (Fr.) Whipped cream, sweetened and sometimes flavored
with vanilla or liqueur; also hollandaise or mayonnaise with whipped
cream folded in at the last minute; a kind of mousseline.
chao (Chin.) To stir-fry.
chap The lower cheek or jaw of a pig.
chapelure (Fr.) Brown breadcrumbs.
chapon (Fr.) A heel of bread rubbed with garlic and olive oil; can be
either rubbed along the rim of the salad bowl to impart its flavor or
added to the salad itself; not necessarily removed before serving;
chapon also means capon.
chaptalization A method of adding sugar to grape juice before fer-
mentation, especially in bad years in cooler climates, to enable wine
to reach minimum alcoholic content; a process not necessarily but
often abused. Named for Chaptal, a French chemist (and Napoleon's
Minister of Agriculture).
char A member of the trout and salmon family; the Arctic char is
particularly good for eating.
charcuterie (Fr.) The art of preparing meat, especially pork; the meat
specialties, such as sausages, ham, rillettes, galantines, and pates,
made in a French butcher's shop.
charcutiere (Fr.) Sauce Robert with julienne of gherkins added just
before serving; served primarily with grilled pork chops and other
Chardonnay A grape variety from which many excellent white wines
are made.
charentais (Fr.) A sweet and succulent French melon with yellow
green ribbed skin and orange flesh.
charlotte (Fr.) A classic dessert, originally an apple compote in a pail-shaped mold lined with buttered bread and served hot. Careme
elevated this to Bavarlan cream in a ladyfinger-lined mold to make
charlotte russet A charlotte royale replaces the ladyfingers with spongecake cut into many thin layers sandwiched with jam; in a further
elaboration, charlotte royale a l'ancienne, thin layers of jelly roll
line a shallow mold filled with Bavarian cream.
Charolais (Fr.) French cattle fed on grass rather than grain (as in the U.S.), producing the lean but flavorful beef favored in France; also a chevre from the Charolais region of Burgundy.
Chartreuse (Fr.) A liqueur made by Carthusian monks, originally in Grenoble but now largely in Voiron, France, and Tarragona, Spain; the liqueur comes in two types, yellow and green, the latter being higher proof.
Chassagne-Montrachet A commune in the southern Cote d'Or producing outstanding white wines and very good reds.
Chasselas (Fr.) A white grape variety, producing a light and fruity wine; although it does not make the best wines, it is valued for its hardiness and productivity and cultivated extensively, especially in Switzerland.
chasseur (Fr.) A classic sauce of sliced sauteed mushrooms and shallots reduced with white wine, enriched with demi-grace and butter, and finished with chopped parsley; chasseur is the French word for hunter.
chateau-bottled Wine bottled where it was produced by the vineyard owner, especially in Bordeaux; this term ensures authenticity, if not quality, from the better vineyards; a statement such as "Arise en bouteilles au Domaine" or "par le Proprietaire" should be on the main wine label.
chateaubriand (Fr.) Beef cut from the middle of the fillet, grilled and gartushed with chateau potatoes and bearnaise sauce; chateaubriand sauce is a reduction of white wine, shallots, herbs, and mushrooms, with demi-grace and butter added.
Chateauneuf-du-Pape A famous red wine from the village of the same name in the Rhone Valley, near Avignon, the site of the French pope's summer home in the fourteenth century.
chateau potatoes (Fr.) Potatoes cut into small ovals and sauteed in butter.
chatni (Ind.) Chutney; a condiment, originally created to accompany Indian curries, of fruit and spices cooked with vinegar and sugar as a preservative; much loved by the English and anglicized into chutney.
chaud-froid (Fr.) Poultry, game, or meat that is cooked but served cold, usually covered with aspic or a special sauce and highly garnished.
chausson aux pommes (Fr.) Apple turnover.
Chavignol (Fr.) A small, soft French goats' milk cheese from Sancerre.
chayote (Sp.) A vegetable of the melon and gourd family, with a prickly ribbed skin and pear shape; native to Mexico and the Antilles, it is often used in Spanish cooking and is prepared in a wide variety of ways; also called custard marrow and mirliton.
Cheddar A whole-milk cows' cheese, originally from Somerset, England, in which the curd is scalded, pressed, and aged; this style is made in factories the world over, while true farmhouse Cheddar, made with unpasteurized milk, wrapped in cloth, and matured for six months
to two years, is one of the great cheeses; the technique called cheddaring is a combination of milling and turning the curd.
chef de cuisine (Fr.) Executive chef.
chef de partie (Fr.) Section chef, such as saucier or patissier.
chemiser (Fr.) To coat a mold with aspic, ice cream, or some other lining; en chemise, literally "in a shirt," means any food in a coating, such as potatoes in their jackets or ice cream covered with a thin brittle layer of chocolate.
Chenin Blanc (Fr.) A grape variety from which excellent white wine is made.
cherimoya: The most commonly known and arguably best, species of custurd apple. The skin of the cherimoya (Annona cherimolia) greenish-gray with a scaled pattern. The white pulp is sweet and perfumed, forming a natural custard in its own right. Flavors are reminiscent of pineapple, banana and guava, but truly a flavor of its own. The cherimoya is ripe when soft at touch and the outside turns a darker color. This doesn't affect the quality, on the contrary, it indicates that the fruit is in the best stage of sugarness and taste.
Cherry Heering (Den.) Brandy distilled from cherries, including a high proportion of stones.
chervil An herb of the parsley family, originating in Russia and the Middle East and known from ancient times; its delicate flavor, slightly aniselike, is lost in stewing and drying, so it is best used fresh.
Cheshire An English cows' milk cheese, cooked, hard-pressed, and aged, made in red (with annatto), white (uncolored), and blue; a venerable cheese that cannot be made elsewhere because of the special salty Cheshire pastureland; called Chester on the continent.
Chester See Cheshire.
cheveux d'ange (Fr.) Angel hair pasta, the thinnest vermicelli. See also capelli d'angelo.
chevre (Fr.) Goat; by extension, goats' milk cheese that, properly speaking, is soft and fresh, uncooked and unpressed; specific chevre cheeses are individually entered.
chevreuil (Fr.) Venison; roebuck.
Chevrotin (Fr.) A cheese of goats' milk, or occasionally a mixture of goats' and cows' milk, from Savoy; the cheese is uncooked, pressed, and shaped in a small disc.
Chianti (It.) A red Italian table wine, ranging from pleasant to exceptional; very popular abroad as well as in its native Tuscany; Chianti Classico is particularly distinguished; Chianti bottles, or fiaschi are shipped in their familiar woven-straw coverings.
Chiaretto (It.) An Italian rose wine produced near lake Garda; light, fresh, and agreeable; Chiarello is virtually the same wine.
chicken-fried steak Steak dipped in batter and fried crisp like chicken; a Black American specialty.
chicken a la Kiev Boned chicken breast rolled up to enclose an herbflavored butter, egg-and-breadcrumbed, and deep-fried; the delicious butter has been known to squirt out on the unwary diner.
chicken paprikash See paprikas csirke.
chicken steak A cut of beef from the chuck, in small individual portions with a characteristic white streak down the center.
chicken Tetrazzini Strips of cooked chicken and spaghetti in a cream sauce flavored with sherry and Parmesan, gratine; named for the Italian coloratura soprano Luisa Tetrazzini.
chick-pea A round legume, often dried, used extensively in Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, Indian, and Mexican cooking; an important ingredient in couscous, hummus, and many soups and stews.
chicory A group of related plants-including Belgian endive, radicchio, escarole, wild chicory (the roots of the latter are roasted and used to flavor coffee), and a bitter green often called curly endive, which is cooked or used in salads.
chiffonnade (Fr.) Leaf vegetables sliced into very thin strips, particularly lettuce and sorrel shredded and sauteed in butter.
chilaquiles (Mex.) Tortillas layered with beans, ham, chicken, tomato sauce, and cheese.
Child, Lydia Maria ( 1802 - 1880) An American abolitionist and author whose cookbook, The American Frugal Housewife ( 1829), gained wide popularity due to its common sense and directness.
chili The fruit of the pepper plant, from the Capsicum family, ranging in its many varieties from mild to fiery hot; the pungenc-y is concentrated in the white tissue attached to the seeds, which should be handled with care. Originating in South America, chili peppers are used in many cuisines the world over; in common usage the word chili implies hot peppers. No relation to black pepper, an error first made by Columbus, who thought the chilies in the West Indies were the hlack pepper of the Indies. The plural of the Spanish word chile is chiles; the English spc-lling is either chili or chill), with the plural c*ilies or chillies-a source of much confusion.
chili con came A Mexican-American dish of beef highly seasoned with chili peppers and other spices and herbs; there arc- many variations, the subject of considerable controversy.
chilindron, a la (Sp.) See polio a la chilindron.
chili powder Dried crushed chili peppers with other dried spices and herbs, including onion, garlic, cumin,
cloves, coriander, and oregano.
chili sauce A reduction of chiles, tomato and onion with seasonings, sugar and vinegar,a great flavorful sauce
by itself, or added to other condiments such as a 1000 Island Dressing
Chincoteague A species of oyster from the Chcsapeake Bay region, closely related to the Blue Point.
chine To separate the backbone from the ribs of a roast to make carving easier.
Chinese anise See ba jiao.
Chinese beans "Yard-long" beans, also called asparagus heans; bright green in color.
Chinese gooseberry See kiwi.
Chinese parsley Coriander.
Chinese sausages Sausages usually of pork meat and fat, spiced and
dried, and reddish in color; sometimes pork liver or even duck liver
sausages are available in Chinese groceries in the U.S.
chinois (Fr.) A fine-mesh conical sieve shaped like a coolie hat-
hence its name.
chinook See salmon.
chipolata (Sp.) A small sausage flavored with chives; in classical French
cuisine the term designates a garnish of the sausages with braised
chestnuts, diced pork, and glazed onions and carrots.
chipotle (Mex.) A brownish red chili pepper with wrinkled skin; dried,
smoked, and often canned, this chili is very hot and has a distinctive
smoky flavor.
chiqueter (Fr.) To flute the edges of pastry with the fingertips.
chitterlings, chitlings The small intestines of animals, usually pigs,
often cleaned and filled with scraps to make sausages which go by
the same name; popular in Black and southern American cooking.
chive An herb of the onion family, whose tall thin leaves delicately
flavor savory foods.
chlodnik (Pol.) A eold summer soup of beet greens and roots, cu-
cumbers, and onions, flavored with herbs, vinegar, and kvass, and
garnished with sour cream; a warm-weather variety of borsch.
cholent (Jew.) Brisket with potatoes, lima beans, and pearl barley,
slowly cooked overnight to be ready for the Sabbath.
chongos (Sp.) A custard pudding with lemon and cinnamon.
chorizo (Sp.) A spicy sausage used in Spanish cooking, made of pork
meat and fat and flavored with garlic and spices.
Choron (Fr.) In classical French cuisine, bearnaise sauce colored pink
with a little tomato puree.
chou (Fr.) Cabhage.
choucroute (Fr.) Sauerkraut.
chou farci (Fr.) Stuffed cahhage.
chou-fleur (Fr.) Cauliflower.
choux de Bruxelles (Fr.) Brussels sprouts.
choux pastry See pate a choux.
chow chow A (.hincsc-American vegetahle pickle flavored with mustard;
thc original Chinesc condiment consisted of orange peel in a thick
syrup, flavored with ginger and other spices.
chowder A thick soup, made from various foodstuffs; the word comes
from the French chaudiere, the iron cauldron in which it was cooked,
which in turn derives from the I atin word for "warm." loday, chowder
is usually made of seafood or perhaps vegetables, with a milk hase.

Chuck Cut of beef from the forequarter, between the neck and shoulder,
usually best for stewing or braising.
chuleta (Sp.) Chop.
chun juan (Chin.) Spring roll; a thin, round lumpia wrapper made
from flour and water, stuffed with various fillings, such as shrimp,
pork, and black mushrooms, wrapped up, and deep-fried to a golden
brown; this authentic Chinese food is served at the spring festival to
celebrate the Chinese New Year, and its elegant appearance is said
"to resemble a bar of gold"; not to be confused with cai juan.
chutney (Ind.) See chatni.
ciboulette (Fr.) Chives.
cicely, sweet cicely A fragrant herb of the parsley family little used
today, whose anise-flavored leaves and seeds contribute to salads and
bouquets garnis.
cider Apple juice, or sometimes another fruit juice, either fermented
or not. In the U.S., sweet cider is unfermented, while hard cider is
slightly alcoholic; in Europe, fermented cider can range widely in
alcoholic content and is often sparkling. Cider can also be made into
apple brandy or vinegar and is often used in cooking in any of its
many forms.
cigala (Sp.) Saltwater crayfish, a small lobster; the British call it a
Dublin Bay prawn, the French langoustine, the Italian scampo.
cilantro (Sp.) Fresh coriander leaf.
ciliegia (It.) Cherry.
Cincho (Sp.) A ewes' milk cheese, from Spain; hard and pungent, similar
to Villalon.
cinnamon A spice from the dried bark of an evergreen tree indigenous
to Asia and used since the Egyptians (third millennium B.C.) cinnamon
was one of the most desirable eastern spices from ancient to medieval
times, but is now mainly relegated to flavoring desserts, at least in
the west. C.innamon is often confused with its close relative cassia,
especially in powdered form.
cioccolata (It.) C hocolate.
cioppino A fisherman's stew, often made with tomatoes; originally the
ciuppin of Genoa, by way of San Francisco, where it is a favorite.
cipolla (It.) Onion.
cisco A North American lake whitefish, usually smoked.
ciseler (Fr.) To cut into julienne strips or shred as for a chiffonnade;
to scorc a whole fish to hasten cooking.
citron A fruit of the citrus family, resembling a large, lumpy lemon;
cultivated for its thick rind, which is candied or pressed; its oil is
used in making liqueurs, perfume, and medicine.
citron (Fr.) Lemon; citron vert means lime.
civet (Fr.) A stew of furred game, cooked with red wine, onions, mush-
rooms, and lardons, and thickened with the animal's blood.
civette (Fr.) Chives.
crabber Buttermilk-soured, thickened milk that has not yet separated.
claffouti (Fr.) A pudding from Limousin made of small fruit, such as
cherries or plums, with a thick egg batter poured over and baked.
clam A saltwater bivalve mollusk in many varieties, generally divided
into hard-shell (see quahog), which are eaten raw or cooked, and
soft-shell, usually eaten cooked.
Clamart, a la (Fr.) Garnished with peas.
clambake See New England clambake.
claret The British term for red Bordeaux wine.
clarified butter Butter that has been heated to separate the impurities,
thus allowing their easy removal; butter so treated has a higher burning
point and clearer color but less flavor; also called drawn butter.
clarify To remove all impurities from stock or jelly (usually with egg
white) or from fat.
classed or classified growth Wine, especially from the French Bordeaux,
that has been officially ranked, usually by the Classification of 1855
for Medoc. At that time, the best vineyards and estates were ranked
Cru Classe ("Classed Growth"), including the five official Growths-
Premier Cru (First Growth) through Cinquieme Cru (Fifth Growth)-
and various lower rankings, such as Cru Exceptionnel, Cru Bourgeois
Superieur, and Cru Bourgeois. (These latter were often fine wines
and not "inferior" at all in the usual sense.) Since only Medoc and
Sauternes were included in the 1855 Classification, many excellent
wines were omitted altogether.
clementine A hybrid produced by crossing the orange with the tangerine; small, sweet, and seedless.
clingstone, clings A drupe, stone fruit, it which the seed clings to the meat of the fruit unlike a freestone drupe.
clos (Fr.) A specific vineyard, usually one of distinction, such as Clos de Vougeot of the Cote d'Or in Burgundy.
clotted cream (Brit.) Cream skimmed from scalded milk and slowly
warmed until it thickens; a specialty of Devonshire, England.
cloud ear See yun en
clou de girofle (Fr.) Clove; cloute means studded.
clove The dried bud of an east Indian evergreen tree known since
ancient times and a desirable commodity in the medieval spice trade;
the name derives from the latin word for nail, clavus.
club steak A eut of beef from the loin between the T-bone and rib
section; tender and flavorful, it is the same as a strip loin unboned.
cobbler A deep-dish fruit pie with a thick top crust of biscuit dough.
cocada (Sp.) Coconut custard.
cochineal See carmine.
cochino (Sp.) Pig; a suckling pig is cochinillo.
cochon (Fr.) Pig; the culinary term, like that in English, is pore
cocido (Sp.) Stew; also means cooked, as opposed to fresh.
cock-a-leekie (Scot. ) A soup made from chicken broth, leeks, and
sometimes prunes and pieces of chicken.
cocoa The remaining nibs in chocolate manufacture after the chocolate
butter is liquefied; the pods of the cacao tree are fermented, roasted,
and ground until the chocolate butter is liquefied, leaving the nibs,
which are then powdered to make cocoa. Cocoa is thus much lower
in fat than chocolate proper.
cocotte (Fr.) Casserole; a cooking pot with a closely fitted lid for slow braising or stewing.
cod A fish with great historic importance for its economic value in
centuries past and an essential part of the triangle that supported the
slave trade. Cod meat is lean, firm, white, and mild, with a large flake, suitable fresh for diverse cooking methods
and with many flavors.
Salted, smoked, or dried, it can be preserved for long periods; as
morue, brandade, bacalao, bacalhau, lutefisk, and finnan haddle
it is often preferred to fresh cod. Haddock, hake, and pollock are
members of the cod family. In Monterey California the most prevalent variety, goes by the local name "Red Snapper."
coda di bue (It.) Oxtail.
codorniz (Sp.) Quail.
coeur a la creme (Fr.) A cream-cheese dessert from provincial France
in which heavy cream and cream cheese are combined and molded
in a heart-shaped form that allows the whey to drain off, then turned
out and garnished with strawberries or other berries.
Cognac Brandy, blended and aged, from the French town of the same
name in the Charentes district north of Bordeaux.
coin" (Fr.) Quince.
Cointreau A colorless orange-flavored French liqueur, A colorless orange-flavored French liqueur, a higher
quality of Triple Sec liqueur, formerly called White Curacao popular with
'top shelf' Margaritas..
col (Sp.) Cabbage.
Colbert, a la (Fr.) Fish dipped in egg, breadcrumbed, and fried; Colbert butter is a chicken or meat glaze mad
e of butter, chopped parsley, and perhaps tarragon.
Colby An American variety of Cheddar cheese; a washed-curd cheese,
originally from Colby, Wisconsin.
colcannon (Ir.) A peasant dish of cabbage, potatoes, leeks, and milk,
traditionally eaten at Halloween with a "treasure," such as a ring,
coin, thimble, or button hidden within.
colere, en (Fr. ) Fish, usually whiting, cooked with its tail in its mouth, giving it a so-called "angry" look; often dipped in egg, breadcrumbed, and deep-fried, and served a la fran,ca*e, with a tomato sauce.
coliflor (Sp.) Cauliflower.
colin (Fr.) Hake.
collage (Fr.) Flning.
collard, collard greens A type of cabbage whose leaves do not form
a head; highly nutritious and able to withstand very hot and very
cold temperatures; it is a favorite country vegetable in the southern
U.S., where it is called collard greens.
colle (Fr.) With gelatin added.
collop (Brit.) A thin slice of meat; an old term that has been used
variously but now usually means a scallop of meat or fish.
colza See rape.
comal (Mex.) A cast-iron griddle or earthenware plate for making
commis (Fr.) Apprentice.
commune (Fr.) A township or village and its surrounding land; fre-
quently used to describe wine-producing regions.
compose(e) (Fr.) A term describing a salad that is arranged or composed in its serving dish or plate, rather than tossed.
compote (Fr.) A dish of fresh or dried fruit stewed slowly in syrup
to keep its shape, often flavored with liqueur and spices and served
compound butter Butter combined with other seasonings such as herbs,
shallots, and wine.
concasser (Fr.) To pound in a mortar or chop roughly; often applied
to tomatoes that have been peeled, seeded, and chopped for sauce;
corncasse is the adjective.
conch A gastropod mollusk usually eaten in chowder or salad, mostly
in Florida and the Caribbean. Conch is also the name of the curved
trough, resembling the shell, in which refined chocolate particles are
churned with cocoa butter to a smooth liquid; this process, essential
to high-quality melting chocolate, is called conching.
conchiglia (It.) Shellfish; pasta in the shape of a conch shell.
concombre (Fr.) Cucumber.
Conde (Fr.) With rice; also a pastry strip covered with almond icing
and many other sweet or savory dishes, often with rice.
condensed milk Milk with its water content reduced by slightly more
than half, sterilized, homogenized, and canned; sweetened condensed
milk has sugar added as a preservative and may not be sterilized;
both types taste sweeter than regular milk.
condiment Relish, pickle, or seasoning, highly aromatic, that accompanies
food at the table and stimulates the appetite.
conejo (Sp.) Rabbit.
confectioners sugar Powdered white sugar, not crystallized like superfine sugar, useful for its ability to dissolve quickly.
confectionery The art of sugar working or candy making.
confiserie (Fr.) Confectionery, confectioner's shop; confiseur means
confectioner in French.
confit (Fr.) Pork, goose, duck, or other meat, cooked and preserved
in its own fat; a specialty of Gascony in southwestern France; also
fruits and vegetables cooked and preserved in a brandy or liquor
confiture (Fr.) Preserve, jam.
cony (Chin.) Scallion; yang cony (literally, "Occidental scallion") means onion.
coniglio (It.) Rabbit.
consomme (Fr.) Clear broth; meat, chicken, game, or fish stock flavored with vegetables, strained, reduced, and usually clarified.
copeaux en chocolat (Fr.) Chocolate shavings.
coq au vin (Fr.) Chicken cut up and braised with onions, mushrooms,
and lardoons in red wine.
coquillage (Fr.) Shellfish.
coquille de (Fr.) Served in a scallop shell.
coquille Saint-Jacques (Fr.) Scallop. Classic French scallop dish featurring shallots, mushrooms and cream.
coral Lobster roe, which turns red when cooked; used for sauces and
coratella (It.) Organ meats.
cordero (Sp.) Lamb; a suckling or milk-fed lamb is cordero lechazo
or lechal.
Cordon Bleu The "blue ribbon" awarded to outstanding women chefs,
a tradition going back to a story, perhaps apocryphal, of Madame de
Pompadour and Louis XV; the name also designates a dish of chicken
or veal scallops cooked with cheese and ham, which came from the
Cordon Bleu cooking school in Paris in the early twentieth century.
coriander An herb valued both for its dried seeds and fresh leaves; used extensively in Oriental, Indian, and Spanish cooking; the Spanish word for fresh coriander is cilantro.
corn A new-world grain from Central America, upon which the pre-
Columbian cultures were founded; still the main food crop on the
American continent (in the U.S. indirectly, through livestock and dairy
feed). Columbus brought corn, or maize, to the Old World where
it has slowly gained acceptance.Corn, of which there are countless
varieties, cannot sow itself and is therefore unknown in the wild. In
Europe, corn is the generic name for whatever grain is dominant in
a particular area. See also polenta.
corned beef Salted and spiced brisket of beef, the traditional ingredient of New England boiled dinner. "Corned" means granulated; hence, coming means to preserve with salt.
cornet (Fr.) A horn-shaped pastry stuffed with sweetened whipped
cream; a slice of meat, such as ham, rolled into a cone and often
filled, for a garnish or hors d'oeuvre.
corn flour (Brit.) See cornstarch.
Cornish hen See Rock Cornish game hen.
Cornish pasty (Brit.) A pastry turnover enclosing a meat or vegetable
filling; originally from Cornwall.
corn pone Cornmeal dough shaped into ovals and deep-fried or baked;
a southern American bread served with butter and sometimes
pot liquor; the word pone is of American Indian origin.
corn salad See lamb's lettuce.
cornstarch Very fine white flour milled from corn; used as a thickening
agent for sauces and sometimes for baking; used extensively in Chinese
cooking; sometimes called corn flour.
Corton (Fr. ) Excellent red and white wines from the village of Atoxe-
Corton in the Cote de Beaune region of Burgundy.
cos Romaine lettuce.
coscetto (It.) Leg of lamb.
coscia (It.) Thigh, as of chicken; leg, as of lamb.
cosciotto, coscetto (It.) Ieg of lamb; haunch.
costata (It.) Rib chop.
costoletta, cotoletta (It.) Chop or cutlet.
cote (Fr.) Rib or chop.
cotechino (It.) A large fresh sausage made with pork meat and rind
and seasoned with nutmeg and cloves; sometimes delicate, sometimes
very spicy.
Cote de Beaune (Fr.) See Cote d'Or.
Cote de Nuits (Fr.) See Cote d'Or.
Cote d'Or (Fr. ) A narrow strip of hillside along the Saone River Valley in Burgundy, southeast of Paris, comprising the Cote de Dijon in the uppermost part, the Cote de Nuits in the middle, and the Cote de
Beaune in the southernmost part; in the latter two most of the greatest
French wines are produced, hence the meaning of its name, "golden
cotelette (Fr.) Cutlet.
Cote Rotie (Fr.) A famous red wine from steep slopes ovcrlooking the
Rhone River.
Cotes de Provence (Fr.) Red, white, and rose wines produced on thc
southern coast of France between Nice and Marseilles; light, pleasant,
fairly inexpensive, and popular.
Cotes du Rhone (Fr.) Plcasant but undistinguished wines, mostly red,
trom the Rhone Valley between Vienne and Avignon; the finer wines
of thc region are sold under more specific appellations.
cotriade (Fr.) A fish soup from Brittany.
cottage cheese Fresh lumpy cheese made from skimmed pasteurized
cows', milk in which the curds are washed; its taste is bland and
slightly acid, lending itself to various flavorings; also used in salads, cheesecake, and even with fruit; it is high in protein but low in fat.
cotto (It.) Cooked.
coulibiac (Russ.) See kulibyaka.
coulis (Fr.) An old culinary term of some confusion; originally the
strained juices from cooked meat, then a puree of chicken, game, or
fish; now it usually means a bisque or thick sauce or puree, such as
Coulommiers (Fr.) A whole-milk cows' cheese from Brie, usually
eaten fresh but sometimes molded and aged like Brie; shaped in
wheels smaller than Brie, with a white rind flora; the interior is creamy white and increasingly flavorful with age.
country style spareribs A cut of pork-the backbones from the shoulder end of pork loin, cooked like breast spareribs.
courge (Fr.) Marrow, squash.
courgette (Brit.) Zucchini.
couronne, en (Fr.) In the shape of a crown; in a ring.
court bouillon (Fr.) Flavored acidulated stock for cooking food, pri-
marily fish, but also vegetables and meat.
couscous A dish from Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria prepared variously,
but usually consisting of semolina steamed on top of a special two part pot over meats and vegetables boiled below, served all together
with a hot sauce.
couverture (Fr.) High-grade chocolate used especially for coating and
ornamental work; it is semisweet and high in cocoa butter, giving it
a glossy surface.
cozza (It.) Mussel.
crab A large and varied family of clawed crustaceans with delicate white meat; all true crabs are edible, and some of them are separately
crackling The crisp brown skin of pork or sometimes poultry with all
its fat reudered; sometimes baked into breads.
crapaudine, a la (Fr.) Poultry, especially small birds, trussed to look like toads.
crayfish A crustacean with many species, usually freshwater, varying
widely in size but most often smaller than a lobster; these "dainties
of the first order," as Audubon called them, are prized delicacies in
many cuisines but largely ignored in the U.S., except for the Creole
and Cajun cooking of Louisiana. The freshwater crayfish is sometimes
called crawfish or (in French) ecrevisse; the saltwater crayfish is also
called crawfish, rock or spiny lobster, langouste, langoustine (in
French), Dublin Bay prawn (in Britain), Norway lobster, and scampo
(in Italy). There is considerable confusion among these terms.
cream The fatty part of milk, which rises to the surface unless homog-
enized. Single cream is 45 percent butterfat, measured by the percentage
of dry matter rather than volume; double cream is 60 percent butterfat;
triple cream is 75 percent. In cheesemaking, additional cream must sometimes be added to the milk to bring it up to the degree of butterfat required.
cream cheese Fresh unripened whole-milk cows' cheese, with a high fat content (varying with different types); in the U.S. this cheese is usually factory made, with stabilizers added to keep the whey from draining further, but there are many versions throughout the world.
cream puff pastry See pate a choux.
Crecy, a la (Fr.) With carrots; from the town of the same name, where the finest Freneh carrots are grown.
creme (Sp.) Custard, eream.
creme a l'anglaise (Fr.) Custard.
creme brulee (Fr.) Rieh custard topped with a brittle layer of sugar (usually brown sugar), caramelized under the broiler just before serving.
creme Chantilly (Fr.) See Chantilly.
creme chiboust (Fr.) Creme patissiere lightened with Italian meringue, usually stabilized with a little gelatin.
creme fraiche (Fr.) Heavy eream with a lactic culture introduced; the culture acts as a preservative and gives a characteristic tangy flavor; see also fleurette.
creme patissiere (Fr.) Pastry cream-a custard of eggs, flour, milk, and sugar used to fill cream puffs, line tarts underneath fruit, and garnish various pastries.
creme pralinee (Fr.) Creme patissiere flavored with powdered praline; used to fill Paris-Brest and other French pastries.
creme renversee (Fr.) Custard baked in a caramel-lined mold, chilled, and inverted for serving.
Creole In Louisiana, food eookcd in thc creole style usually begins with sauteed tomatoes, onions, celery, and sweet peppers, and often includes rice; it combines the many local influences-French, Spanish, 131ack, and Indian-in a unique way; see also Cajun. In classic Irench cuisine, a la creole designates a dish garnished with rice and containing sweet peppers, onion, and tomatoes cooked in oil.
crepe (Fr.) A pancake made thin, light, and surprisingly strong from the eggy batter; invariably stuffed, spread, or served with moist mixtures, either savory or sweet.
crepes Suzette (Fr.) Crepes heated in a chafing dish at table with a sauce of orange juice and zest, butter, and orange-flavored liqueur and flambeed.
crepinette (Fr.) A small Freneh sausage wrapped in caul rather than easing, usually made of pork, and occasionally truffled; crepine is pig's caul.
Crescenza See Stracchino.
crespella (It.) A pancake, usually stuffed like a crepe.
crevette (Fr.) Shrimp.
croaker A large family of fish, sometimes called drum, found mostly in
temperate western Atlantic waters; it is named for the noise it makes
during spawning season; croaker is excellent in various culinary prep-
arations but should not be eaten raw.
croissant A light yeast-dough pastry layered like puff pastry, rolled into a "crescent" shape, sometimes stuffed, and baked; an indispensable
part of the French breakfast. In 1686 the bakers of Budapest heard
the Turks tunneling into the city by night and sounded the alarm.
The grateful city gave them the privilege of making this pastry, whose
shape comes from the emblem on the Ottoman flag.
croquembouche (Fr.) Bite-size cream puffs piled high into a pyramid
and cemented together with sugar glaze or caramel; other pastries
and fruits arranged in a highly ornamented pile.
croque monsieur (Fr.) The French version of a grilled ham and cheese
sandwich, often cooked in a special device; a croque madame is a
cheese and chicken sandwich.
croquette Chopped meat or vegetables bound with a sauce, crumbed,
and fried into a crisp, brown cylindrical shape; originally French.
crosta, crostata, crostatina (It.) Crust, pie, tart.
crostacei (It.) Shellfish.
crostino (It.) Crouton or croute; a small piece of toast.
Crottin de Chavignol (Fr.) A goats' milk cheese from Berry; semihard
to hard, shaped in very small discs; aging brings out its goaty flavor,
an acquired taste that is favored by connoisseurs; crottin literally
means "dung."
croustade (Fr. ) Hollowed bread or pastry that serves as a base for a
savory puree or ragout.
croute (Fr. ) A crust, shell, or piece of bread or dough used in various savory preparations; en croute means encased in pastry.
crouton (Fr.) A small piece of bread or dough used for garnish; sauteed
bread cubes.
crown roast Loin of pork or two loins of lamb from the rib section,
tied into a crown, trimmed, and roasted; the ends of the rib bones
are often decorated with paper frills, the center filled with a vegetable or starch stuffing.
cru (Fr.) Growth; that is, a specific vineyard and its wine; a vineyard
of superior quality. See also classed growth.
crudites Raw food, usually vegetables, eaten before a meal to assuage
hunger and stimulate the appetite.
crudo (It. and Sp.) Raw, fresh.
crustacean A class of arthropods, mostly water-dwelling, with a hard
shell; includes all members of the lobster, shrimp, crayfish, and
crab families.
cu (Chin.) Vinegar.
cuaresmeno (Mex.) A green chili pepper sometimes confused with
the jalapeno, but actually darker, rounder, hotter, and less flavorful.
cube To cut food into cubes about 2 inch across; larger than dice or
cuisine minceur (Fr.) Light and healthful cooking for dieters, devised and advocated by three-star French chef Michel Guerard, substituting low-calorie ingredients in haute cuisine; not to be confused with nouvelle cuisine.
cuisse (Fr.) Drumstick; cuisseau means leg, usually of veal.
cuissot (Fr.) Haunch of venison or boar.
culotte (Fr.) Rump of beef.
Cumberland sauce Red-currant jelly dissolved with port and flavored
with shallots, orange zest, and mustard-a traditional accompaniment
to venison and other game.
cumin A spice made from the dried and ground seeds of the cumin
plant; a relative of parsley, cumin is used in sweet and savory prep-
arations in Germanic, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and Asian cooking,
especially curries.
cuore (It.) Heart.
Curacao (Neth.) A Dutch liqueur made from the dried peel of the
green sour oranges found on the island of Curacao in the Dutch
Antilles; Cointreau, triple see, and Grand Marnier are similar to
curd The solid residue of coagulated milk that separates from liquid
whey after acidification in the cheese making process.
cure To age a food product, such as cheese, wine, vegetable, fish, or
meat, in order to preserve it by methods such as drying, salting, or
curly endive See chicory.
Curnonsky The pen name of French gastronome, journalist, and food
critic Maurice-Edmond Sailland ( 1872-1956); he encouraged interest
in regional French cuisine and the development of the restaurant as
we know it.
currant A small, black, seedless raisin originally grown near Corinth,
Greece, from which its name is derived; no relation to the fruit of
the same name.
curry A mixture of spices widely used in Indian cooking for thousands
of years, originally as a preservative. Ground on a special stone, the
particular spices vary according to individual taste, a specific dish,
or regional preferences (those of the south tend to be hotter). The cygne masala, or spice mixture, can be either wet (in which case it is
ground with vinegar, coconut milk, or water and must be used im-
mediately) or dry (in which case it is ground to a powder that can
be kept for quite a while). The many spices (most entered separately) include turmeric, cumin, coriander, fenugreek, fennel seed, saffron, mace, nutmeg, cardamom, clove, cinnamon, poppy and sesame seeds, tamarind, onion, garlic, and chilies. See also garam.
custard apple: The Annona trees produce a variety of delicious fruits which are generally known as custard apples. All the fruits in this family are multiple fruits, make up of sections that grow together. The pulp is soft, suggesting the consistency of custard, and it is full of shiny, black seeds. Most of the annona fruits originated in the American tropics, but nowadays they are cultivated in places like Asia, Australia, Spain and, in particular, Israel. The cherimoya, the best known custard apple, began its history in Peru, where it is regarded as one of the finest fruits in the world. Other custurd apple fruits are: sugar apple, soursop, bullock's heart, and atemoya.
custard marrow See chayote.
cut in To mix particles of fat, such as butter or lard, throughout flour with two knives or a pastry blender.
cutlet A scallop of meat-usually a slice from the leg and preferably
from one muscle.
cuvee (Fr.) A particular blend, lot, or batch of a certain wine.
cygne (Fr.) A swan made from pate a choux and filled with creme
dab See flounder.
dacquoise (Fr.) A pastry made of meringue combined with finely
ground nuts, baked in discs, and filled with flavored whipped cream
or buttercream and often fresh berries.
dahchini (Ind.) Cinnamon or cassia.
daikon (Jap.) A large radish used extensively in Japanese cooking,
either in raw or cooked form.
daizu (Jap.) Dried soybeans.
dal (Inc. ) Legumes of all sorts.
Dampfnudeln (Ger.) Yeast dumplings sweetened and served with fruit.
den (Chin.) Egg.
Danablu (Den.) A Danish blue cheese of whole raw cows' milk, made
in the Roquefort style.
Danish pastry A yeast pastry filled with nuts, fruit, custard, or cheese, and iced; originally from Denmark, but much traveled since.
Dao (Port.) Red and white table wines produced in the Dao river valley
in the town of Viseu in Portugal; they are full-bodied, deep in color,
and made from the same grape varieties as port.
dariole (Fr.) A cylindrical mold, usually small; also a cake baked in
such a mold.
Darjeeling (Ind.) A variety of tea from the Indian province of the
same name.
dame (Fr.) Fish steak; a thick cross section of fish.
dashi (Jap.) Fish stock made of dried bonito and seaweed; used ex-
tensively in Japanese cooking.
dattero (It.) Date.
daube, en (Fr.) Meat, usually beef, slowly braised in red wine and
seasonings; stew; a daubiere is a tight-ridded casserole for cooking
daubes, originally with indentations in the lid for charcoal.
Daumont, a la (Fr.) A large fish garnished with quenelles, roe, mush-
rooms, and crayfish, served with Nantua sauce.
dauphine, a la (Fr.) Potato puree mixed with pate a choux and deep
fried in balls or piped shapes.
dauphinois (Fr.) Usually means with walnuts; potatoes a la dauphinoise
are sliced and baked with milk, egg yolk, nutmeg, Gruyere, and garlic.
daurade (Fr.) Gilthead bream; dorade is another type of bream.
debourbage (Fr. ) Clearing of the sediment from newly pressed grape
juice, especially white, by allowing it to settle for twenty-four hours
before starting fermentation; this technique must be closely controlled.
debrecziner (Hung.) A sausage similar to a Frankfurter but spicier
and coarser in texture.
decant To transfer wine from bottle to carafe or decanter, in order to
remove sediment before serving; decanting is practiced primarily with
old red wines, whose bottles are held against the light of a candle
to show sediment as it first appears.
decouper (Fr.) To cut up, to carve.
deep-fry To cook food immersed in a large amount of fat, thus sealing
the outside while keeping the inside moist.
deglacer (Fr.) To deglaze by dissolving, with wine, stock, or other
liquid, the sediment left in the pan after meat, poultry, or fish has
been cooked in a small amount of fat.
degorger (Fr.) To soak a food, such as sweetbreads, in cold water in
order to cleanse it; also an important final step in making Champagne,
whereby the sediment is removed from the bottle before the dosage
and final cork are added.
degraisser (Fr.) To remove grease from the surface of liquid, by skim-
ming, or from a large piece of meat, by scraping or cutting.
Deidesheim A town in the German Palatinate producing excellent white
wines, mostly Rieslings, with full body, fine bouquet, and varying sweetness.
Delmonico A boneless cut of beef from the rib section, roasted or cut
into steaks; also called Spencer steak.
Demeltorte (Aus. ) A pastry filled with candied fruit, from Demel's Cafe in Vienna.
demerara sugar Partially refined raw cane sugar, naturally light brown
in color from the molasses.
demi, demie (Fr.) Half.
demi-deuil, a la (Fr.) Poultry and other pale-colored foods garnished
with truffles to resemble "half-mourning"; with poultry,, the truffle
slices are slipped between the skin and breast meat.
demi-feuilletage (Fr.) See rognures.
demi-glace (Fr.) Brown sauce reduced by half-nearly to a glaze-
with veal stock.
demijohn A large, narrow-necked wine bottle or jug of varying size,
sometimes in a wicker or straw jacket; from the French Dame Jeanne.
demi-sec (Fr.) A term for Champagne and sparkling white wines de'
noting them as sweet, even though the literal meaning is "half-dry";
this is the sweetest category of Champagne.
demi-sel (Fr.) Soft, fresh, whole-milk cows' cheese from Normandy,
in a small square.
Demi-Suisse See Petit-Suisse.
denerver (Fr.) To remove gristle, tendons, membrane, etc., from meat.
denominazione controllata (It.) The Italian equivalent of appellation controlee; recently implemented.
dense, al (It.) Literally, to the bite; refers to pasta or vegetables cooked only until firm and crunchy, not soft and overdone.
depecer (Fr.) To cut up, to carve.
deposit See sediment.
depouiller (Fr.) To skim the fat or scum from the surface of a sauce
or stock.
Derby or Derbyshire (Brit.) Cows'' milk cheese, uncooked and hard,
pale and mild, made in large flat rounds by a method similar to that
of Cheddar; Sage Derby is flavored and colored with the herb.
deshebrar (Sp.) To shred.
desosser (Fr.) To bone.
detrempe (Fr.) Dough of flour and water in which a layer of butter
is encased in the making of pate feuilletee.
Devonshire cream (Brit.) See clotted cream.
diable, a la (Fr.) Deviled-food, usually meat or poultry, spiced with
grilled; sauce diable is demi-grace with white wine or vinegar and
cayenne pepper.
diablotins (Fr.) Cheese-flavored croutes or choux for garnishing soup.
dice Small squares of food, technically smaller than a cube.
dicke Bohnen mit Rauchfleisch (Ger.) A Westphalian dish of broad
beans with bacon and smoked pork belly.
dieppoise, a la (Fr.) Saltwater fish garnished with mussels and crayfish in a white-wine reduction sauce.
Dijon The capital of Burgundy; Dijon mustard has a white-wine base;
a la dijonnaise means with a mustard-flavored sauce.
dill An herb whose seeds and leaves flavor sweet and savory foods,
especially in northern and eastern European countries; in the U.S. it
is commonly used with vinegar for pickling cucumbers.
dim sam (Chin.) Small dishes, such as various dumplings, fried shrimp
balls, spare ribs, or fried spring rolls, eaten for snacks during the day; served in restaurants specializing in these dishes, which are from
Canton; commonly spelled dim sum, it means "little heart."
dim sum See dim sam.
dinde (Fr. ) Turkey hen; dindon is a cock, dindonneau a young turkey.
Dionysus See Bacchus.
diplomat pudding (Brit.) A molded dessert of ladyfingers soaked with
candied fruit in liqueur or brandy and layered alternately with custard;
diplomat sauce is sauce normande with lobster butter, garnished
with diced lobster and truffles.
disossato (It.) Boned.
Dobostorta ( Hung. ) Thin layers of sponge cake spread with chocolate cream, stacked, and glazed with hot caramel; created by the Hungarian Josef Dobos.Born in Budapest in 1847, he had a pub in Budapest, and later a famous restaurant.
dodine (Fr.) See ballotine.
dolce (It.) Sweet; the plural, i dolci, means desserts.
Dolcelatte (It.) A mild blue-veined cheese, a younger and sweeter type
of Gorgonzola.
Dolcetto (It.) A grape variety, grown in Piedmont, used in Italian red
wines; soft and early-maturing.
dolma (Turk.) A stuffed leaf or other vegetable; usually a blanched
grape leaf filled with rice and ground lamb and braised in stock, oil,
and lemon juice.
domaine (Fr.) Vineyards comprising a single property, whether or not
they are contiguous; in Bordeaux and Provence, the word means
chateau; the German word is Domaene.
Dom Perignon A Benedictine monk, cellar-master at the Abbey of Haut-
villiers, whom tradition credits with the invention of the process for
making Champagne; now the brand name of the best wine produced
by Moet et Chandon.
donburi (Jap.) A bowl of rice topped with a mixture of leftovers.
dong gu (Chin.) Dried black mushrooms with a strong smoky flavor.
Doppelbock (Ger.) Extra strong Bock beer.
dorage (Fr.) See dorure.
dorato (It.) Dipped in egg batter and fried to a golden color.
doree (Fr.) John Dory or Saint-Pierre
Doria (Fr.) In classical French cuisine, a garnish for fish of cucumbers that are shaped into small ovals and simmered in butter.
Dorsch (Ger.) Cod.
dorure (Fr.) Egg wash for "gilding" pastry, made by beating together
egg or egg yolk and a little water and brushing a thin layer on the
surface of the pastry to color during baking.
dosage (Fr.) Sugar syrup added to bottled wine after the degorgement
(during the Champagne process), the amount of which determines
the degree of sweetness of the finished wine.
dou (Chin.) Bean.
double boiler See bain-marie.
Double Gloucester (Brit.) Cows' milk cheese with a rich, mellow
flavor, dense almost waxy texture, and deep yellow color from annatto
dye, made in large flat rounds; so named because this English cheese,
made from the whole milk of two milkings of the Gloucester cow,
is twice as large as Single Gloucester.
dou fu (Chin.) Bean curd or tofu; the Chinese dou fu is drier and
firmer than the Japanese tofu.
dough Flour or meal mixed with water, milk, or other liquid, for making
bread or pastry.
Douro Valley River valley in Portugal where port is made.
doux, douce (Fr.) Sweet; as a wine term it implies sweetening by an
agent rather than by nature.
dou zhi (Chin.) Black beans; chi zhi is black bean sauce, made from
fermented black beans, which are rinsed and chopped before being
added to sauces.
Dover sole See sole.
dragee (Fr.) Sugar-coated almond; sugar plum.
dragoncello (It.) Tarragon.
Drambuie (Scot.) A liqueur made from Scotch malt whisky flavored
with heather honey.
drawn Refers to a whole fish scaled and gutted but with head and fins
left on.
drawn butter See clarified butter.
dredge To coat food with a dry ingredient such as flour, cornmeal, or
bread crumbs, shaking off the excess.
drum See croaker.
drupe, stone fruit A type of deciduous fruit whose fruit is centered around a single seed, such as an apricot, cherry, plum or peach, unlike a multi-seed deciduous fruit.
dry Wine term meaning not sweet.
Dubarry, a la (Fr.) Garnished with cauliflower shaped into balls, coated with Mornay sauce, and glazed with chateau potatoes.
Dublin Bay prawn (Brit.) Saltwater crayfish; the French langoustine, the Italian scampo, the Norway lobster.
duchesse, a la (Fr.) Potatoes boiled and pureed with eggs and butter and often piped as a garnish or border; a duchesse is a small cream puff stuffed with savory puree, coated with a chaud-froid sauce, and served as an hors d'oeuvre.
duck sauce (Chin.) See suan mei jiang.
Duglere (Fr.) Sole poached and served in a sauce of tomatoes, shallots, herbs, and white wine reduced and finished with cream; named for the famous eighteenth-century French chef, Duglere.
dulce (Sp.) Sweet.
dulse A coarse but edible seaweed from the North Atlantic, especially around Britain, used mostly for its gelatin.
Dumas, Alexandre, pere ( 1802 - 1870) A prolific French dramatist and novelist ( The Three Musketeers) and author of the Grand Dictionnaire de Cuisine, published posthumously; Waverly Root has called him "an author more picturesque than accurate," and his dictionary indeed makes for lively reading.
dumpling A round lump of dough steamed on top of a savory soup or stew, or stuffed and baked with a sweet fruit filling; the variety is infinite.
Dundee cake (Scot.) A rich fruit cake topped with almonds.
Dungeness crab Pacific rock crab, very popular, weighing up to four pounds.
dunkeles Bier (Ger.) Dark beer.
Dunlop A Scottish cows' milk cheese, similar to Cheddar but moister, softer, and blander.
dunsten (Ger.) To steam, to stew.
durazno (Sp.) Peach.
durian The fruit of a Malaysian tree with prickly rind and edible pulp and seeds; its highly offensive smell keeps most Westerners from tasting its flesh, considered exquisite by its advocates.
Durkheim A town in the Rhine Valley producing a very large amount of red and white wine, mostly unremarkable.
durra See sorghum.
durum wheat The hardest species of wheat, usually made into semolina flour.
dust Finely broken tea leaves, inferior in grade, yielding a quick, strong brew.
Dutch oven A large, heavy cast-iron or metal kettle with a close-fitting lid, used for cooking stews, pot roasts, etc.; originally, coals could be out on too to heat food from above as well as below.
duxelles (Fr ) Finely chopped mushrooms and shallots slowly cooked in butter to form a thick, dark paste that is used for seasoning sauces, as a spread for toast, and in other preparations; often said to be the invention of La Varenne, who worked for the Marquis d'Uxelles, but the story is probably apocryphal since he gives no such recipe in his books.
eau de vie (Fr.) Fruit brandy, literally "water of life," often called
alcool blanc ( "white alcohol" ); colorless eau de vie retains its clarity because it is aged in crockery rather than wood, unlike most brandies. Alsace, Germany, and Switzerland produce many eaux de vie, flavored with a wide variety of fruits, Kirschwasser being the best known.
ebi (Jap. ) Shrimp.
Eccles cake (Brit.) A small traditional cake, originally from Lancashire, of puff pastry filled with currants and sprinkled with sugar.
echalote (Fr.) Shallot.
echaude (Fr. ) Pastry whose dough is first poached in water, then baked
in the oven.
eclair Choux pastry piped into finger shapes and filled with flavored
cream; originally French.
ecrevisse (Fr.) Freshwater crayfish.
Edam (Neth.) A round yellow Dutch cheese from the town of the
same name, made of partly skimmed cows' milk and slowly fermented;
the finished cheese is coated with linseed oil and, if for export,
covered with red wax.
edamame (Jap.) Fresh soybeans in the pod.
Edelfaule (Ger.) Noble rot.
eel A snake like fish that migrates from the ocean to tidelands and rivers in spring; eel tastes best taken from fast-moving rather than brackish water and killed soon before eating; a rich and fatty fish, eel is excellent smoked, stewed, jellied, baked, and grilled; its shape may
account for its unpopularity in the U.S., but until the eighteenth
century it was considered a delicacy in England and still is in many
Eger A town in Hungary that produces two famous red wines, Egri
Bikaver ("bull's blood" ) and Egri Kadarka; both are full-bodied, deep
in color, and slow-maturing.
egg and bread crumb To dip food into beaten egg and then into bread
crumbs before frying to give it a crisp coating.
eggnog A nutritious milk punch made of milk, egg yolks, sugar, spices
(such as nutmeg), and usually some kind of liquor.
egg roll See cai juan.
egrappage (Fr.) The process of removing stems from grapes before
pressing, thus reducing the tannin content of the wine.
Ei, Eier (Ger.) Egg, eggs.
eingelegte (Ger.) Pickled, preserved.
eingemacht (Ger.) Pickled, preserved, bottled, canned; also preserves,
jam, pickles.
Eintopf (Ger.) "One-dish" stew or meal containing various meats and
vegetables and possibly even fish.
Eis (Ger.) Ice cream.
Eisbein (Ger.) Pickled pork hocks, usually accompanied by mashed
potatoes and sauerkraut.
Eiswein (Ger.) Wine made from very ripe grapes caught by an early
hard frost and only partially frozen because of their high sugar content.
elaichi (Ind.)Cardamom.
elder A shrub whose cream-colored flowers are delicious in fruit
compotes and fritters, and whose deep purple berries contribute to fruit soups, jellies, and homemade wines.
elote (Mex.) Corn.
Eltville A town in the Rheingau region of West Germany producing
many consistently good white wines.
emince (Fr.) Thinly sliced cooked meat, usually leftover, covered with
sauce and reheated.
Emmental, Emmentaler (Switz.) A whole-milk cows' cheese from
German-speaking Switzerland; the cheese is cooked, pressed, and shaped
into large wheels with a hard light brown rind and golden interior
with large holes; its taste is mellow, rich, and nutty, excellent for
eating or cooking, the quintessential Swiss cheese; incorrectly spelled
Emmenthal or Emmenthaler .
empanada, empanadilla (Sp.) A pie or tart with various savory fillings, originally from Galicia.
empandita (Sp.) A pastry turnover whose shape-square, round, tri-
angular, or rectangular-indicates the specific type of filling, such as
meat, seafood, or vegetable.
emulsion A stable liquid mixture in which one liquid is suspended in
tiny globules throughout another, as with egg yolks in oil or butter
for mayonnaise or hollandaise sauce.
enchilada (Mex.) A tortilla, fried and filled variously, often with
meat, chilies, or cheese.
endive See Belgian endive.
enokidake (Jap. ) Wild mushrooms with long thin stems and tiny caps,
either white or tan; the stems should be trimmed before using these
mushrooms fresh in salads or cooked in soup, stir-fried, or in tempura
dishes; mild in flavor, they are available fresh and canned.
ensalada (Sp.) Salad.
Ente (Ger.) Duck.
Entrammes (Fr.) See Port-Salut.
entrecote (Fr.) Steak cut from between the ribs.
entrecuisse (Fr.) Thigh or second joint of poultry and game birds, as
opposed to drumstick (cuisse).
Entre-Deux-Mers A region "between two rivers," the Dordogne and
Garonne, in Bordeaux, that produces a large quantity of wine; those
using the name Entre-Deux-Mers are fairly good white wines, gradually
becoming drier and better.
entree In the United States, this word today usually means the main
course, but in France it retains its original meaning of first course.
entremeses (Sp.) Appetizers, hors d'oeuvre.
entremets (Fr.) Literally "between courses," this vague term can denote side dishes, such as vegetables and salads, and desserts served after the cheese course.
entremetter (Fr.) Vegetable cook.
epaule (Fr.) Shoulder.
eperlan (Fr.) Smelt.
epice (Fr.) Spice.
Epicurus A Greek philosopher who espoused the pursuit of pleasure,
often interpreted as indulgence in luxury and sensual pleasure; an
epicure, with regard to food, can mean either a gastronome or a
epigramme (Fr.) A preparation of lamb in which a cutlet or chop and
a slice of breast are dipped in egg and bread crumbs and fried or grilled.
epinard (Fr.) Spinach.
eplucher (Fr.) To peel; epluchoir is a paring knife.
eponger (Fr.) To drain vegetables cooked in water or oil on towels.
Erbsen (Ger.) Peas, usually dried and split.
Erdapfel (Ger.) Potato, especially in southern Germany and Austria.
See also Kartoffel.
Erdbeere (Ger.) Strawberry.
escabeche (Sp. and Port.) Cooked fish, sometimes poultry, marinated
in vinegar or wine (which pickles it) and other seasonings; served
cold in the earthenware container in which it was pickled; often
confused with seviche.
escalibada (Sp.) Mixed vegetables-sweet peppers, eggplants, tomatoes,
and onions-grilled over charcoal; from Catalan.
escalope (Fr.) Scallop of meat or fish; a thin slice possibly flattened by pounding.
escargot (Fr.) Snail.
escarole A type of chicory with broader, less delicate leaves and a more bitter taste than lettuce; excellent for winter salads.
Escoffier, Auguste (1847 - 1935) A great French chef who codified
classical French cuisine with Le Guide Culinaire and other books.
Escoffier, who worked with the great hotelier Cesar Ritz at the London
Savoy, Connaught, and Carlton hotels, and the Ritz in both London
and Paris, improved the organization and working conditions of the
professional kitchen.
espadon (Fr.) Swordfish.
espagnole (Fr.) A basic brown sauce that serves as the basis for many
others in classic cuisine; made from brown roux, brown stock browned
mirepoix, tomato puree, and herbs cooked together slowly, skimmed,
and strained.
espresso (It.) Strong Italian coffee made with a special machine that
forces steam through the coffee grounds.
essence A concentrated substance, usually volatile, extracted by distillation, infusion, or other means, such as fish essence, coffee essence, vanilla extract; see also extract.
estate-bottled See chateau-bottled.
estilo de, estilo al (Sp.) In the style of, a la.
estofado (Sp.) Stew.
estouffade (Fr.) A dish cooked by the etouffer method; also a brown
stock used to dilute sauces and moisten braised dishes.
estragon (Fr.) Tarragon.
estufa See Madeira.
etamine (Fr.) A cloth for straining stocks, sauces, etc, see tamis.etouffer, etuver (Fr.) A method of cooking food slowly in a tightly closed pan with little or no liquid; estouffade refers to the dish itself. evaporated milk Milk with its water content reduced by half and sterilized; this causes it to taste caramelized, but no sugar is actually added. extract Concentrated stock, juice, or solution produced by boiling and clarification (as for vegetables, fish, poultry, game, and meat, when the extract may be reduced to a jelly or glace) or by distillation (as for fruits, seeds, or leaves, such as vanilla, almond, rose water, and peppermint essence). Fish extract is usually called fumes. eye of round See round.
fabada asturiana (Sp.) A hearty peasant stew of dried fava beans
cooked slowly with salt pork, ham, sausages, and onions.
fagioli (It.) Beans, usually white haricot or kidney beans; fagiolini
are green string beans.
faisan (Fr.) Pheasant; the Spanish term faisan sometimes includes other
game birds.
falafel, felafel (Mid. E.) Dried fava beans or chick-peas minced,
spiced, shaped into balls, and deep-fried; eaten throughout the Middle East with slight variations.
fan (Chin.) Rice; bai fan is plain rice, chao fan is fried rice, and zhou fan is congee rice.
fannings Tea made from broken leaves, yielding a quick, strong brew.
farce (Fr.) Stuffing, forcemeat; farci means a stuffed dish, such as
cabbage, breast of veal, or flank steak stuffed and braised.
farcito (It.) Stuffed.
farfalle (It.) Butterfly-shaped pasta.
farfel (Jew. ) Egg dough grated, dried, and cooked in soup as a garnish.
farina (It.) Flour.
farinaceous Made of flour or meal; from cereal grains, starchy.
Farmer, Fannie Merritt (1857-1915) A cooking teacher and author
of The Boston Cooking School Cook Book (1896), which achieved
great and lasting popularity; its main innovation was precise mea-
surements for ingredients, but Farmer has been blamed as "the maiden
aunt of home economics."
farmer cheese Cheese made from whole or partly skimmed cows' milk,
similar to cottage cheese.
Fasnacht, Fastnacht A potato doughnut deep-fried in pork fat; the diamond-shaped yeast pastry, Pennsylvania German in origin, is traditionally eaten on Shrove Tuesday (Fastnacht in German), to use up the fat before Lent.
fatto in case (It.) Homemade.
fava Broad or faba bean, of Mediterranean origin; important as a nutritional component of the diet and as a rotation crop; fava beans can be eaten raw, cooked fresh, or dried, and though esteemed for their distinct flavor in the Mediterranean are largely ignored in the U.S.
fegato (It.) Liver; fegatelli means pork liver; fegatini means chicken
feijoa A fruit native to South America and now grown commercially in
New Zealand; deep green with a white pulp, it is eaten fresh in salads
or made into preserves.
feijoada (Braz.) A robust dish halfway between a soup and a stew,
made of pork trimmings, sausage, beef, black beans, rice, and manioc
meal, seasoned with peppers and garnished with oranges.
Feingeback (Ger.) Pastry.
fennel A vegetable and herb in many varieties whose bulbous stems,
leaves, and seeds are edible; anise-flavored, it is favored in Mediterranean countries where it originated; Italians call it finocchio, the English refer to it as Florentine fennel; it is no relation to Chinese anise (see ba jiao).
fenouil (Fr.) Fennel; au fenouil means grilled over dried wild fennel
fen si (Chin.) Cellophane or translucent noodles made from mung
beans, softened in a liquid before being used in Chinese cuisine.
fenugreek A leguminous plant from western Asia whose slightly bitter
leaves are consumed fresh in salads and whose celery-flavored seeds
are eaten by people and cattle; usually added to curries, fenugreek
is eaten mostly in India, the Near East, and Northern and East Africa;
in the U.S. it is used as the main flavoring in imitation maple syrup.
fermentation A chemical process in the making of bread, cheese, wine,
beer, and other foods, in which yeast, mold, or bacteria act upon
sugar and brie' about a transformation.
fermiere, a la (Fr.) In the style of the farmer's wife; with mixed
ferri, ai (It.) Grilled over an open fire; also ferri alla griglia
Feta (Gr.) A goats' or ewes' milk cheese from Greece, pressed, then
cured in brine or its own salted whey; crumbly, salty, white, and
rindless, it is often used in salads and cooking; generic fete is increasingly made with cows' milk or a mixture of cows' and goats' milk, especially by large commercial producers outside Greece.
fetta (It.) Slice, fillet.
fettucine (It.) Long, flat, thin strips or "ribbons" of egg pasta; this is the Roman and southern Italian name for tagliatelle, almost the same, but slightly narrower and thicker.
feuilletage (Fr.) Puff pastry, pate feuilletee.
fiambre (Sp.) Cooked meats served cold; cold cuts.
fiasco (It.) A flask or wine bottle, thin and round-bottomed, with a woven straw covering for strength and support; the plural is fiaschi; Chianti has the most familiar fiasco.
fico (It.) Fig.
fiddlehead The young shoots of certain ferns, such as bracken, harvested in spting as they unfurl, at which time they resemble violin ("fiddle") heads.
Figeac, Chateau A large and fine vineyard from Saint-Emilion in Bor-
deaux; several lesser-known vineyards nearby have Figeac as part of
their names.
filbert A cultivated hazelnut, so called because the nuts ripen around
St. Philbert's Day, August 22; used in confectionery and hazelnut
file powder Dried ground sassafras leaves used to thicken gumbos in
Creole cooking.
filet (Fr.) Fillet; a boneless cut or slice of meat, poultry, or fish, especially beef tenderloin.
filet mignon (Fr.) A small, boneless, tender slice of beef from the
thick end of the tenderloin.
filo See phyllo.
financiere, a la (Fr.) Meat or poultry garnished with cocks' combs
and kidneys, sweetbreads, mushrooms, olives, and truffles; sometimes
these ingredients are encased in vol-au-vent pastry.
fines herbes (Fr. ) A mixture of chopped herbs such as parsley, chervil, tarragon, and chives used to flavor omelets, salads, chops, etc.; occasionally the term means chopped parsley alone.
fining The process of clarifying wine by adding various substances and
removing sediment.
finnan haddie (Brit.) Smoked haddock; originally from the Scottish
town of Findon, fence the name.
fino Pale, light, dry sherry, generally used as an aperitif and considered the best type of sherry.
finocchio (It.) Fennel.
Fior di Latte (It.) A cows' milk cheese of the spun-curd type, similar
to Mozzarella; originally from southern Italy.
fiorentina, bistecca alla (It.) T-bone steak charcoal grilled in the
Florentine style-rare and plain but moistened after grilling with a
few drops of olive oil.
fiori di zucca (It.) Squash blossoms dipped in batter and fried.
Fior Sardo (It.) A whole, raw ewes' milk cheese-the original Sardinian
Pecorino and still produced in Sardinia; this Italian cheese is good
for the table when young and excellent for grating when mature.
firm-ball stage Sugar syrup that has reached a temperature of 243 F.
( 117 C. ) and that forms a firm ball between the fingers when immersed
in cold water.
first-growth wine See classed growth.
five-spice powder See wu hsiang fun.
flageolet (Fr.) A small pale green bean, fresh or dried, similar to the haricot or kidney bean.
flamande, a la (Fr.) Garnished with braised cabbage, carrots, turnips,
sliced pork belly, sausage, and potatoes.
flambe (Fr.) The French word for flamed; used to describe food that is
ignited with a small amount of heated liquor poured over it, the
burning alcohol enveloping the dish in flames.
flameado (Sp.) Flambe.
flan An open tart made in a ring mold, usually filled with custard, either sweet or savory; in Spanish, pan is a caramel cream custard, a very popular dessert.
flank A cut of beef from the lower hindquarter that, well trimmed, is
true London broil.
flatbrod (Nor.) "Flat bread," very thin and crisp, traditionally made in Norway of rye, barley, and wheat flours.
flatfish Any saltwater fish with both eyes on one side of the head; this includes sole, flounder, turbot, halibut, and plaice.
Fleisch (Ger.) Meat.
Fleischkase (Ger.) Meat loaf.
fletan (Fr. ) Halibut.
fleurette (Fr.) French sweet cream that has not been cultivated with
lactic acid to make creme fraiche.
fleuron (Fr.) A small ornament, such as a crescent, cut from flaky
pastry to garnish hot food.
floating island See "Isle Flotant" One of the original desserts of early Louisiana, the floating island, arrived with the French in the late 1600s. A dessert of meringue "islands" on a sea of custard; also sponge cake sliced, sprinkled with liqueur, spread with jam, nuts, and dried fruit, reshaped and covered with creme Chantilly, with custard or fruit puree poured over all..
flor (Sp.) Literally "flower," it is the name for the yeast that naturally forms after fermentation on Spanish fino and amontillado sherries and on those of other countries by inoculation, and which greatly improves the wine.
florentine, a la (Fr.) With spinach; a garnish, especially for eggs and fish, of a bed of spinach; the whole dish is often masked with Mornay sauce.
Florentine fennel See fennel.
flounder A flatfish member of the sole family in many varieties, including plaice, brill, halibut, sanddab, turbot, and so-called gray, lemon, rock, and petrale sole. The flounder's shape is rounder than that of sole and though an excellent fish for eating, many of the names under which it is marketed are merely intended to make it more attractive to the consumer.
flummery (Brit.) An oatmeal or custard pudding, thick and sweet; in the United States, it has come to mean a fruit pudding thickened with cornstarch.
flute To make a grooved or furrowed pattern in certain fruits and vegetables, especially mushrooms, or in the edges of a pie crust; also the name of a Champagne glass shaped in a deep slender cone.
focaccia (It.) A flat, round peasant bread flavored with sage and pancetta and originally baked on hot stones on the hearth.
foie gras (Fr. ) The enlarged livers of force-fed geese and ducks, especially the geese of Toulouse and Strasbourg.
fold To combine a frothy light substance, such as beaten egg whites or cream, with a heavier one by using a gentle circular motion, in order not to lose air and reduce volume and lightness.
Folle Blanche (Fr.) A French grape variety yielding a pale, light, clean, and acidic wine, productive but vulnerable; also called Picpoul in the Armagnac country, where it produces an excellent brandy but a mediocre table wine.
foncer (Fr.) To line a cake or pie tin; pate brisee and pate sucree are types of pate a forcer.
fond, fonds de cuisine (Fr.) See stock.
fondant (Fr.) An icing mixture used as a coating in confectionery and pastry.
fond d'artichaut (Fr.) Artichoke heart.
fondre, faire (Fr.) To "melt" vegetables, especially onions, leeks, and garlic, by cooking them very gently until softened.
fondue (Fr. and Switz. ) From the French word for melted, fondue has several meanings: in Switzerland, it refers to Swiss cheese, melted with white wine and seasonings in a special earthenware pot over a flame, for dipping bread cubes into; fondue bourguignonne is cubes of raw beef speared and cooked in a pot of oil heated over a flame,
then eaten with various sauces; in French cooking, it refers to minced
vegetables, such as tomatoes, cooked in butter or oil until they dis-
integrate; also a dish of eggs scrambled with melted cheese and butter.
fonduta (It.) A dish of melted Fontina cheese with eggs, butter, milk,
sliced truffles, and white pepper; from the Piedmont region.
Fontal A pasteurized whole-milk cows' cheese from northern Italy and
eastern France, similar to Fontina but without its distinction.
Fontina (It.) Raw whole-milk cows' cheese, semi cooked and pressed,
originally from the Aosta Valley near the Swiss border; it is pale yellow with a brown crust, about one foot across (in wheels), firm but
creamy, mild yet nutty; true Fontina is a fine cheese, but there are
many inferior imitations.
fool (Brit.) A puree of fruit, such as rhubarb or gooseberry, mixed
with cream; the word apparently does not come from the French
foule, meaning crushed, but is akin to the English folly or trifle.
forcemeat Stuffing.
Forelle (Ger.) Trout.
forestiere, a la (Fr.) Garnished with sauteed morels or other
mushrooms. diced bacon, and diced potatoes sauteed in butter.
formaggio (It.) Cheese.
fortified Refers to wines (such as port, sherry, and Madeira) that have had brandy or another spirit added to them before bottling, thus
strengthening their alcoholic content.
fouet (Fr.) Whisk; fouette means whisked.
four, au (Fr.) Baked in the oven.
Fourme d'Ambert (Fr.) Tall cylindrical cheese from the Auvergne,
made from raw, partly skimmed cows' milk; it is creamy, with blue
veins and a dry rind.
fourrage (Fr.) Filling or stuffing, as for pastry.
fragola (It.) Strawberry; fragoline di bosco are wild strawberries.
frais, fraiche (Fr.) Fresh.
fraisage (Fr.) A technique for kneading dough by smearing it across
the work board with the heel of the hand and then regathering it.
fraise (Fr.) Strawberry; fraises des bois are wild strawberries.
framboise (Fr.) Raspberry.
frambuesa (Sp.) Raspberry.
Franconia A wine-producing region of West Germany in the upper Main
Valley around Wurzburg; its white wines, of Sylvaner and Riesling
varieties, are bottled in the characteristic squat flat-sided green flagons called Bocksbeutels.
frangipane (Fr.) A type of choux pastry, originally Italian;
frangipane cream is a creme patissiere flavored with almonds.
Frankfurter (Ger.) A sausage from which the hot dog is descended.
frappe (Fr.) Chilled; iced; surrounded by crushed ice.
Frascati, a la (Fr. ) A classical garnish of sliced foie gras, truffles, flutedmushroom caps, asparagus, and duchesse potato crescents, with veal stock; also a pleasant dry white wine produced in the town of the same name near Rome.
freddo (It.) Cold.
freestone A drupe, stone fruit, it which the seed is free from the meat of the fruit unlike a clingstone drupe.
fresa (Sp.) Strawberry.
fresco (It. and Sp.) Fresh.
Fresno chili (Mex.) A small cone-shaped chili pepper, fairly hot in
friandise (Fr.) Petits four or other small confection.
fricassee (Fr. ) A stew of white meat, usually poultry or veal, in a white sauce, such as a blanquette..
Friese (Neth.) A whole or partly skimmed cows' milk cheese from the
Netherlands, uncooked and very hard; it is spiced with cloves and
cumin, giving it a strong flavor.
frijoles (Sp.) Beans; in Mexican cooking, frijoles negros are black beans; frijoles refritos are refried beans-that is, beans that are boiled, mashed, and fried with piquin chilies for filling tacos, etc.
Frikadellen (Ger.) Meatballs of beef, bread crumbs, and egg, often
served cold.
frio (Sp.) Cold.
frire (Fr.) To fry.
frit (Fr.) Fried; friture means fried food or frying.
frito (Sp.) Fried; fritura means fried food.
frittata (It.) An open-faced omelet.
frittella (It.) Fritter.
fritter Food, either savory or sweet, dipped into batter and deep-fried.
fritto misto (It.) Mixed food, deep-fried in batter; can be very elaborate and include a wide variety, such as meat, offal, and vegetables served together.
frizzante (It.) A wine term meaning slightly sparkling or effervescent, due to some additional fermentation in the bottle.
froid (Fr.) Cold.
fromage (Fr.) Cheese; fromager means to add grated cheese, usually
Gruyere or Parmesan, to a sauce, dough, or stuffing, or to sprinkle
it on top of food for browning in the oven.
fromage de tete de pore (Fr.) Head cheese, pork brawn.
Frucht (Ger.) Fruit.
fructose The form of sugar found in many plants, especially fruits, and also in honey; fructose tastes sweeter than sucrose and contains half as many calories but is not necessarily more healthful or "natural" than other forms of sugar, especially when crystallized.
Fruhlingsuppe (Ger.) A soup of spring vegetables in meat stock.
Fruhstuck (Ger.) Breakfast.
fruits de mer (Fr.) Seafood, usually shellfish
frumenty (Brit) porridge of oatmeal of wheat berries and milk with raisins, sugar, and spices; a traditional Old English Christmas food; spelled variously.
frutta fresca de stagione (It.) Fresh seasonal fruit
frutti di mare (It.) Seafood, usually shellfish.
fry To cook in hot fat, either a large (deep fry) or small (sauter) amount.
fuki (Jap.) Coltsfoot; a vegetable similar to celery.
Fullung (Ger.) Stuffing.
fume (Fr.) Smoked.
fumes (Fr.) A concentrated liquid that gives flavor and body to stocks
and sauces; made by completely reducing stock that may contain
wine; see also essence and extract.
frutta fresca de stagione (It.) Fresh seasonal fruit.
frutti di mare (It.) Seafood, usually shellfish.
fry To cook in hot fat, either a large (see deep-fry) or small (see sauter)
fungo (It.) Mushroom; the plural is funghi. furai (Jap.) To fry.fusilli (It.) Thin, spiral-shaped pasta.
galantine (Fr.) Boned poultry, or occasionally fish or meat, stuffed,
rolled or shaped, poached in gelatin stock and served cold surrounded
by its own aspic; often confused with ballotine, which is similar in
construction but braised or roasted and served either hot or cold.
galette (Fr.) A thin broad cake usually of flaky pastry or feuilletage; Galette des Rois is the Twelfth Night cake, baked with a bean and perhaps other emblems to symbolize good fortune for the finder; its shape and decoration vary according to the traditions of particular
French regions.
gallina (Sp.) Hen.
Gamay A grape variety that yields an especially excellent red wine in
Beaujolais; also grown in Burgundy and California.
gamba (Sp.) Shrimp.
gambero (It.) Shrimp; gamberetti are small shrimp; gamberi di fiume
are freshwater crayfish.
game Wild animals, either furred, feathered, or finny, that are pursued
for sport and whose flesh is edible; except for fish, game is often
hung and marinated in vinegar or wine and oil to break down tough
muscular tissue and develop flavor.
Gammelost (Nor. ) A blue cheese made from skimmed cows' milk with
interior and exterior molds; apparently the Vikings made this cheese.
gammon (Brit.) Ham; the bottom part of a side of bacon.
ganache (Fr.) A rich chocolate filling for French pastry, made of semi-
sweet chocolate melted with heavy cream, that sets when cool.
Gans (Ger.) Goose; Gansleber is goose liver.
garam (Ind.) Hot, warm; garam masala is a mixture of ground spices-
such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coriander, and
black peppercorns-that is sprinkled over a dish just before serving.
garbanzo (Sp.) Chick-pea.
garbure (Fr.) A thick soup from Beam, varying widely but usually
containing cabbage, beans, potatoes, vegetables, and pork, sausage,
or ham; usually served with toasted bread.
garde manger (Fr.) A pantry or cold storage area for foodstuffs where
the cold buffet in a hotel dining room is prepared; the chef garde
manger oversees this area and is responsible for pates, salads, gal-
antines, chaud-froids, etc., and for fancy display garniture.
garganelli (It.) Homemade macaroni made with egg pasta, rolled with
a comb like tool.
Garibaldi In classic cuisine, a demi-grace sauce seasoned with
mustard, cayenne, garlic, and anchovy butter.
garlic An herb of the onion family widely used in Eastern, Middle Eastern, and Latin cooking, but disdained by Anglo-Saxons until quite recently; aside from its odor, which is strongest when chopped raw and disappears with gentle slow cooking, garlic has many healthful properties recognized by the ancients.
garnacha (Mex.) See sope.
Garnele (Ger.) Shrimp, prawn.
garni (Fr.) Garnished.
garnish An edible trimming or embellishment added to a dish, usually
enhancing its flavor as well as visual appeal; in classic cuisine the
name of the dish, such as Sole a la florentine or Sole florentine,
designates its particular garnish; care must be given to choose ap-
propriate garnishes; see also a la.
garniture (Fr.) Garnish.
gasconne, sauce (Fr.) Veal veloute with white wine, herbs, and anchovy butter; gasconne sometimes means flavored with Armagnac.
gastronomy The science and art of fine food and drink; the connois-
seurship of the culinary arts.
gateau (Fr.) Cake.
gateau Saint-Honore (Fr. ) A pastry dessert of a crown of choux puffs
on a pate brisee base filled with creme patissiere lightened with
beaten egg whites, the whole topped with caramel; Saint Honore is
the patron saint of bakers.
Gattinara A fine Italian red wine, from the Nebbiolo grape, produced
near Lake Maggiore in the Piedmont; big, slow-maturing, and long-
gaufre (Fr. ) Waffle; pommes gaufrette are potato chips cut like waffles in a mandoline.
gauloise, a la (Fr.) A garnish for clear soup made of cocks' combs
and kidneys.
gayette (Fr.) A sausage from Provence of pork liver and bacon wrapped
in caul and baked.
gazpacho (Sp.) A light, refreshing but thick peasant soup from Andalusia, made of tomatoes, garlic, olive oil, and vinegar, and sometimes bread crumbs mashed together and thinned with ice water; gazpacho is traditionally served with a garnish of diced fresh vegetables, hard-boiled eggs, and croutons, with many regional variations.
Geback (Ger.) Pastry; gebacken means baked.
gebraten (Ger.) Roasted.
gebunden (Ger.) Thickened.
gedampft (Ger.) Steamed.
gefilte fish (Jew.) Balls of mashed fish, onion, matzo meal, egg, and
spices cooked variously; originally, the fish mixture was stuffed back
into the skin of the fish.
Geflugel (Ger.) Poultry.
gefullt (Ger.) Filled, stuffed.
Geisenheim A town in the Rheingau region of Germany known for its
excellent Rieslings and for its outstanding wine school.
gekocht (Ger.) Cooked.
gelatin, gelatine A glutinous substance found in animal bones, cartilage, and tendons which, when dissolved in water, heated, and chilled, turns to jelly.
gelato (It.) Ice cream; a gelateria is an ice cream parlor.
gelee, en (Fr.) In aspic.
gemischt (Ger.) Mixed.
Gemuse (Ger.) Vegetables.
Genes, pain de (Fr.) See pain.
genevoise (Fr. ) A classic sauce of salmon stock reduced with red wine
and herbs and flavored with anchovy butter.
genievre (Fr.) Juniper berry; also, gin that is flavored with the berry; the Italian is ginepro.
genoise (Fr.) A basic sponge cake made with well-beaten eggs to pro-
duce a dry, light base for buttercream icings, petite fours, lining for
molds, and various other elaborate pastries.
genovese, alla (It.) In the style of Genoa, the northwestern maritime
city in Liguria, whose cuisine stresses fresh herbs, vegetables, and
gerauchert (Ger.) Smoked.
German sauce See allemande.
geschabt (Ger.) Ground, grated, scraped.
geschmort (Ger.) Pot-roasted, stewed.
Gevrey Chambertin A commune in the Cote d'Or producing extraor-
dinary Burgundy wines, including first-growth and grand cru vintages,
most of which carry the name of Chambertin as part of their title.
Gewachs (Ger.) Growth or cru, usually meaning an estate-bottled wine.
Gewurz (Ger.) Spice, condiment, seasoning.
Gewurztraminer A grape variety producing a spicy and refreshing white
wine quite unusual in quality; planted widely in Alsace, also in Germany, the Tyrol, and California.
ghee (Ind.) Clarified butter; in India, ghee is usually made of buffalo
butter. Vanaspati ghee is vegetable ghee-hydrogenated cooking fat,
for everyday use; usli ghee is pure fat or butter.
gherkin A small cucumber - the young specimen of certain varieties-
used especially for pickling and garnishing.
ghiaccio (It.) Ice; ghiacciato means iced.
giardiniera, alla (It.) With
gibier (Fr.) Game.
giblets The heart, liver, gizzard, neck, wing tips, feet, leg ends, and
sometimes cocks' combs and kidneys of poultry, cooked separately
in stocks and stews; goose and duck livers, as special delicacies, are
not considered giblets.
gigot (Fr.) Leg of mutton; gigot d'agneau is leg of lamb; manche a
gigot is a special attachment to the gigot bone that facilitates carving.
gigue (Fr.) Haunch of venison or boar.
gilthead A type of sea bream from the Mediterranean, with a gold spot
on each side of the head; its fine, firm, white flesh is excellent grilled over fennel stalks and in numerous other aromatic preparations.
gingembre (Fr.) Ginger.
ginger The rhizome of a plant native to tropical Asia and used as a spice either fresh, preserved, or dried and ground; pervasive in Far and
Middle Eastern cooking, important dried in medieval European cooking,
it is enjoying a new popularity used fresh in American nouvelle
gingerbread A cake flavored with ginger (and often with other spices)
and molasses; also a cookie cut into imaginative shapes and decorated.
ginkgo nut The seed or nut of a tree native to China and considered
a delicacy in the Orient; eaten raw or cooked, it is high in starch.
ginnan (Jap.) Ginkgo nut.
giorno, del (It.) Of the day, du jour (Fr. ).mixed sliced vegetables.
giri (Jap.) A cut, or stroke, of the knife.
girolle (Fr.) See chanterelle.
gite a la noix (Fr.) Silverside of beef.
Gjetost (Nor.) A cheese made in Norway from leftover goats' milk
whey that is boiled down for some hours; the milk sugar caramelizes
and produces a rich brown color and sweet flavor; shaped in a brick,
it can be soft or hard and, strictly speaking, is not a cheese.
glacage (Fr.) Browning or glazing; see glaze.
glace (Fr.) Ice cream; cake icing; see extract.
glace (Fr.) Glazed, iced.
glacier (Fr.) Ice cream maker-usually a pastry cook in a large kitchen.
glassato (It.) Glazed.
Glasse, Hannah (1708-1770) Author of The Art of Cookery, Made
Plain and Easy (1747), a best-seller for a century despite Dr. Johnson's
remark that "Women can spin very well; but they cannot make a
good book of cookery." The clarity of her writing ensured her post-
humous popularity among servants and mistresses alike.
glaze To give a shiny appearance to various preparations both hot and
cold in one of several ways: to brown meat in its own stock in the
oven or under the salamander; to brush extract over meat or other
food; to coat chilled food with aspic jelly; to cover fish or eggs in a
light sauce; to coat hot vegetables with a butter sauce with a little
sugar; to coat sweets with sprinkled sugar or strained jam and caramelize them quickly under intense heat; to ice confections.
glogg (Swed.) Hot spiced wine with akvavit or brandy, almonds, and
Gloucester See Double Gloucester and Single Gloucester.
glucose Natural sugar, found in fruit and other foods, which is easily
absorbed by the body.
Gluhwein (Ger.) Mulled wine.
gluten A substance formed when certain flours, especially hard wheat,
are combined with water and yeast into an elastic dough, which rises
due to trapped air bubbles produced by the yeast; if dough is put
under running water or well chewed, the starch is removed, leaving
the viscous gluten behind.
glycerin, glycerine, glycerol A sweet, clear, syrupy liquid used to
retain moisture in certain kinds of confectionery, such as cake icing,
and to sweeten and preserve foods.
gnocchi (It.) Small dumplings made from choux paste, semolina flour,
or pureed potatoes, poached in water, and served covered with cheese
or other sauce or in a soup.
goats' milk cheese See chevre.
gobo (Jap.) Burdock root.
gohan, gohanmono (Jap.)
golden buck (Brit.) Poached eggs on toast with Welsh rarebit.
golden oak mushroom See shiitake.
goma (Jap.) Sesame seeds.
goober Peanut; the term derives from an African word for the peanut.gooseberry A thorny shrub whose tart fruit, mostly small and green or
larger and purple, but sometimes white or yellow, is especially popular
in France and England for pies, compotes, or preserves; gooseberry sauce is a traditional accompaniment to mackerel in France.
goosefish See monkfish.
gordita (Mex.) Cornmeal and potato dough flavored with cheese, fried
in lard, and served with ground pork and guacamole.
Gorgonzola (It.) A blue cheese from whole cows' milk, either raw or
pasteurized, from the village of the same name near Milan; shaped
in twenty-five-pound drums, it has a rough reddish rind and creamy
white interior streaked with blue; milder and less salty than Roquefort,
it is one of the great blue cheeses, but made from a different mold
than most.
Gouda (Neth.) A round whole-milk cows' cheese from the town of
the same name near Amsterdam; creamy yellow and firm, its taste
becomes more pronounced with age. Gouda is sometimes flavored
with cumin or caraway seeds; young cheeses are covered with yellow wax, older cured cheeses with black wax.
gougere (Fr.) A savory ring of choux pastry flavored with cheese,
often eaten as a light meal with red wine.
goujonette (Fr.) Fillet of sole cut into strips, floured or breaded, and deep-fried, to resemble little fishes or "gudgeons."
goulash See gulyas.
gourmand (Fr.) One who appreciates fine food and drink, a gastronome;
in English the term has come to mean glutton, but this association
is foreign to France.
gout (Fr.) Taste in both senses flavor-flavor and discriminating style.
graham flour Whole meal flour made from unbolted wheat; invented in
1840 by the American social reformer Sylvester Graham, who also
advocated vegetarianism and sexual abstinence; the crackers sold in
supermarkets today under his name, which include among their ingredients
sugar, salt, and preservatives, would horrify him.
grana (It.) Hard granular cheese sometimes eaten when young as table
cheese but more often aged and used grated on pasta or minestrone
or in cooking; dry, crumbly, and long-lasting, several of this type,
such as Parmesan, are separately entered.
granada (Sp.) Pomegranate.
granadilla See passion fruit.
granchio (It.) Crab.
Grand Cru (Fr. ) For Burgundy wine, the highest classification, including thirty vineyards in all; their individual appellations usually exclude the name of the commune.
Grand Marnier (Fr.) A liqueur with a Cognac base, flavored with
bitter orange peel.
grand' mere, a la (Fr.) Garnished with sauteed pearl onions, potatoes
cut into olive shapes, parsley, lemon juice, and browned butter.
grandville (Fr.) A classic white wine sauce with truffles, mushrooms,
and shrimp.
granite (It.) Fruit ice or sherbet to which no Italian meringue is
added, so that its ice crystals intentionally form a grainy texture.
grappa (It.) A drink produced by extracting the alcohol from vinacce, or marks, the skins and seeds left in the fermenting tanks after the wine is transferred to casks to age. Overpowering high in alcohol for many, but can be a digestif following a meal.
Once only a "poor man's" drink, now there are many upscale versions.
gratin de, au gratin, gratine (Fr.) Topped with a crust of bread
crumbs and sometimes grated cheese and browned in the oven or
under a grill.
Graves A wine region on the left bank of the Garonne River southwest
of Bordeaux producing mostly dry white wines; the best reds are
sold under their estate names and, except for Chateau Haut-Brion,
were omitted from the 1855 classification; an excellent sweet wine
similar to Sauternes, usually named Cerons, is also produced in
gravlaks, gravlax (Scand.) Raw salmon fillets cured for a day or so in sugar and salt and seasoned with dill.
grecque, a la (Fr.) Vegetables, particularly Greek ones such as
artichokes and mushrooms, stewed in olive Oil, lemon juice, water, and seasonings.
green onion See scallion.
green sauce See mayonnaise verse.
gremolada (It.) A mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and grated lemon
zest sprinkled over osso buco as an aromatic garnish.
Grenache A grape variety, productive and good in quality, planted ex-
tensively in southern France, the Rioja region of Spain, and California.
grenadine Pomegranate syrup; used to color and flavor cocktails.
grenouille (Fr.) Frog; cuisses de grenouille are frog legs.
gribiche (Fr.) A sauce for chilled fish, based on mayonnaise with capers, chopped gherkins and herbs, and hard-boiled egg whites.
griglia, alla (It.) Grilled.
grill To cook over flames or embers or under a broiler in intense direct heat.
grillade (Fr.) Grilled meat; grilling or broiling.
Grimod de La Reyniere, Alexandre Balthazar Laurent ( 1758-
1838) French gastronome, critic, and author of the Almanach des
Gourmands, with a mordant sense of humor; he organized a jury to
taste and approve the meals sent by willing tradesmen seeking favorable
grissino (It.) Bread stick.
grits hominy grits, a Southern favorite, are often served
as porridge for breakfast or as starch for dinner seasoned with cheese. A type of
hominy, which are corn kernels with the bran and germ removed.
groats Hulled grain, usually broken up or coarsely ground, as with grits (see hominy).
groseille (Fr.) Currant; groseille a maquereau means gooseberry,
the traditional French garnish for mackerel.
grouper Several varieties of fish, all members of the sea bass family;
the lean, firm, moist meat can be cooked in a wide variety of ways.
grouse A large family of wild game birds, prepared in various ways,
depending on age and species; one bird usually serves one person.
gruel A thin cereal, usually oatmeal, cooked in milk or water.
grunt Stewed fruit topped with dumplings; an early American dessert
similar to slump.
Gruyere (Switz.) A cows' milk cheese, cooked and pressed, from the
valley of the same name in French-speaking Switzerland; originally of
skimmed or partially skimmed milk but now made with whole milk;
the pale yellow cheese with a golden brown rind is made in rounds
of over a hundred pounds and aged; those for the export market are
made less salty and with little holes; an excellent table or cooking
cheese with fine melting properties.
guacamole (Mex.) Avocado mashed with onion, chilies, lime juice,
seasonings, and perhaps tomato, and served as a dip, filling, or sauce.
guajillo (Mex.) A long, thin, dried chili pepper, reddish brown and
smooth, very hot, about 4 inches long and 1 inch wide; it is sometimes
called cascabel because it resembles the tail, rattle, and bite of a
rattlesnake, but should not be confused with that chili.
guajolote (Mex.) Wild turkey.
guarnito (It.) Garnished.
guava A tropical shrub whose odiferous berrylike fruit is made into pinkish orange jams and jellies; a poor traveler, this delicious fruit is inadequately appreciated outside its native habitat.
guero (Mex.) A greenish yellow chili pepper, about 4 inches long and
1 inch wide, and pointed; it is fairly hot, with some variation, and is
generally used fresh and toasted or canned, but never dried; also
called Californian pepper or sweet green pepper.
Gugelhupf (Aus.) Austrian dialect for Kugelhopf.
guisantes (Sp.) Peas.
guiso, guisado (Sp.) Stew, stewed.
gulyas (Hung.) A stew of beef or sometimes veal or pork, onions,
potatoes, and dumplings, seasoned with plenty of paprika; it varies
widely according to the region and individual, from delicate to hearty.
The English spelling is goulash
gum arable, gum tragacanth Vegetable gums used as emulsifiers and
thickeners in certain processed foods such as ice cream, candy, and commercial sauces.
gumbo A thick Creole soup or dish thickened with okra or file powder; the word gumbo is derived from an African word for okra.
Gumpoldskirchen An Austrian town south of Vienna known for its fine white wine, which is pale, clean, fruity, and pleasing.
Gurke (Ger.) Cucumber.
gyu (Jap. ) Beef.
haba (Sp.) Fava or broad bean; habas secas are dried beans.
habanero (Mex.) A very hot green chili pepper, smooth-skinned and
Oval, smaller than the jalapeno; sometimes available yellow and red.
hachee (Fr.) A classic sauce of chopped shallots and onions reduced
in vinegar, mixed with demi-grace and tomato puree, and flavored
with duxelles, capers, diced ham, and parsley.
hacher (Fr.) To chop or mince; hachis means hash.
Hackbraten (Ger.) Meat loaf.
haddock A small variety of cod, usually sold fresh or smoked but not
haggis (.Scot. ) A traditional dish of sheep's stomach stuffed with chopped lamb's liver and heart, onions, and oatmeal, well steamed like a pudding; celebrated by the Scots poet Robert Burns.
Hahn (Ger.) Cock.
hai shen (Chin.) A spineless marine creature, called a sea cucumber
or sea slug; a delicacy relished for its gelatinous texture and saved
for special occasions.
hake A small variety of cod.
hakusai (Jap.) Chinese cabbage.
haldi (Ind.) Turmeric.
half-mourning See demi-deuil, a la.
halibut A large flatfish of the flounder family.
Hallgarten A village in the German Rheingau producing very good full
bodied white wines.
halvah (Turk.) Candy made of crushed sesame seeds and honey.
hamaguri (Jap.) Hard-shell clams.
Haman's ears (Jew.) Pastries, deep-fried and ear-shaped, served with
sugar or honey at Purim.
Hamantaschen (Jew.) Triangular pastries stuffed with poppy seeds
and apple, apricot, or prune filling, traditionally eaten for Purim.
Hammelfleisch (Ger.) Mutton.
Handkase (Ger.) A pungent acid-curd cheese made from skimmed
cows' milk, in small round or oblong shapes; originally made by hand.
In Hesse, the cheese is served "mit Musik"-onion relish-which
produces flatulence, hence the name.
Hangtown fry A dish, apparently from the California Gold Rush, of
bread crumbed oysters, fried bacon, and beaten eggs cooked together
like an omelet until set.
hard-ball stage Sugar syrup that has reached a temperature of 250-
268 F. (121 - 130 C and that forms a firm ball between the fingers
when immersed in cold water.
hard-crack stage Sugar syrup that has reached a temperature of 300-
320 F. (150 - 160 C.) and that, when immersed in cold water, forms
brittle threads and sheets that break easily between the fingers.
hard sauce Butter creamed with sugar and flavored with liquor; served
with dessert puddings such as plum pudding.
hardtack A hard cracker that was often used for military rations because of its excellent keeping qualities; also known as ship biscuit and pilot biscuit.
hare A large wild cousin of the rabbit, relished for its dark rich meat
with gamy flavor; hare is usually hung, skinned and drawn, marinated,
and then roasted or stewed; sec also jugged hare.
hareng (Fr.) Herring.
haricot (Fr.) Bean, either fresh (frais) or dried (sec).
haricot blanc (Fr.) White kidney bean, fresh or dried.
haricot de mouton (Fr.) Mutton stew with turnips and potatoes but
no beans at all.
haricot flageolet (Fr.) Pale green bean, usually fresh in France and
rare in the U.S.
haricot rouge (Fr.) Red kidney bean, fresh or dried.
haricot vert (Fr.) Green string bean.
harina (Sp.) Flour.
hartgekocht (Ger.) Hard-boiled.
Hase (Ger.) Hare; Hasenpfeffer is a hare stew flavored with pepper and other spices and braised in red wine.
Haselnuss (Ger.) Hazelnut.
hash Chopped meat, often with vegetables, usually combining leftovers, seasonings, and gravy; from the French word hacher, meaning to chop.
hashi (Jap. ) Chopsticks.
hasty pudding See Indian pudding.
Hattenheim A village in the German Rheingau whose vineyards produce excellent white wine.
Hauptgerichte (Ger.) Main course.
Hausfrauen Art (Ger.) Housewife's style, meaning with sour cream and pickles.
hausgemacht (Ger.) Homemade.
Haut-Brion, Chateau A very famous red Bordeaux wine, ranked a first growth in the 1855 classification (the only Graves included) because of its superlative quality.
Haut-Medoc The southern and more elevated half of the Medoc, north of Bordeaux, including Margaux, Saint-Julien, Pauillac, and Saint-Estephe; its wines are superior to those from the Bas-Medoc to its north.
Havarti ( Den. ) A cheese made from partially skimmed cows' milk, semihard and containing many small holes; pale and mild, sometimes flavored with herbs, it grows sharper with maturity.
hazelnut See filbert.
head cheese Meat from a pig's or calf's head and other scraps boiled, molded into a loaf, and served in its own jelly with condiments.
heavy syrup Two parts sugar to one part water, dissolved; this is a strop a trente with a density of 30 degrees on the Baume scale. A light syrup has an approximately equal sugar-to-water ratio.
Heilbutt (Ger.) Halibut.
heiss (Ger.) Hot.
helado (Sp.) Ice cream.
helles Bier (Ger.) Light beer.
Hendel (Aus.) Chicken, in Austrian dialect.
Henne (Ger.) Hen.
Henry IV (Fr.) Garnished with artichoke hearts filled with potato balls and bearnaise sauce mixed with meat glaze-a classical garnish.
hermetical seal Airtight closure of a casserole or container with bread dough or flour and water paste, designed to keep steam inside during cooking.
Hermitage A celebrated Rhone wine from a large steep slope south of Lyons;: most of this full-bodied. richly colored and flavored wine is
red, from the Syrah grape; the white wine is pale gold, dry, and also
full-bodied, if not so fine.
herring A flavorful and nutritious fish, until recently abundant in the
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and very important economically; herring
is particularly appreciated in northern Europe and, with its high fat
content, lends itself to smoked or pickled preparations (separately
herring rollmop Filleted herring rolled around a pickle or onion, marinated, and served as an appetizer.
Herve (Bel.) A whole-milk cows' cheese, soft, rich, and pungent, made
in 3-inch cubes with a reddish brown rind; named for the town of
Herve, near Liege.
hervir (Sp.) To boil.
Hessia A region in western Germany delineated on the north and east
by the Rhine, on the west by the Nahe, and on the south by the
Pfalz, which produces a large quantity of white wine; the best, from
the Riesling grape, comes from particular towns along the Rhine,
while the rest, from the Sylvaner grape, is quite ordinary.
hibachi (Jap.) A small open charcoal grill.
hickory A tree native to North America whose nut was eaten by the
Indians and which we still eat, especially the pecan; the word hickory
comes from the Algonquin Indian language.
higado (Sp.) Liver.
higo (Sp.) Fig
Himbeer (Ger.) Raspberry.
Himmel und Erde (Ger.) Apples and potatoes with onions and sausage
or bacon (literally "heaven and earth"); a very popular dish.
hinojo (Sp.) Fennel.
hirame (Jap. ) Flounder.
Hirn (Ger.) Brains.
Hirsch (Ger.) Stag, venison.
hiyashi (Jap.) Cold, chilled.
hochepot (Fr.) A thick stew, sometimes more of a soup, made from
less desirable cuts of meat and winter vegetables; the English and
Scottish hotch-potch, hodge-podge, and hot pot are all derivatives.
Hochheim A town in the northeast corner of the German Rheingau
producing distinctive and characteristic Rhine wine even though sit-
uated on the Main River; hock designating Rhine wine to an Englishman,
is derived from its name.
hock See Hochheim.
hodge podge See hochepot.
hoecake Johnny cake, originally cooked over an open fire, using the
hoe as a griddle, when kitchen equipment was less readily available
than now; early American in origin.
hoi sin jeung (Chin.) A thick, rich, dark brown sauce made from
fermented soy beans, garlic, sugar, and salt, and used to flavor sauces
and marinades; it is a Cantonese version of sweet bean sauce.
hollandaise (Fr. ) In classic cuisine, a thick emulsion sauce of reduced vinegar whisked with egg yolks, into which melted butter is gradually beaten in. It is then flavored with lemon juice and kept warm in a bain-marie; one of the basic sauces, it is used primarily with fish, eggs, and vegetables; in modern cooking there are many shortcuts
in technique and ingredients.
Holsteiner Katenschinken (Ger.) Smoked raw ham.
Holsteiner mit Spiegelei; Holstein Schnitzel (Ger.) Veal chop garnished with a fried egg and smoked salmon.
homard (Fr.) Lobster.
hominy Corn kernels with the bran and germ removed either by a Iye
bath, as for whole kernels in Iye hominy, or by crushing and sifting,
as for pearl hominy; hominy grits, a Southern favorite, are often served
as porridge for breakfast or as starch for dinner seasoned with cheese;
the word hominy is American Indian in origin.
hongroise, a 1' (Fr.) Meat garnished with cauliflower flowerets, glazed with Mornay sauce, paprika, and sauteed potatoes cut into olive shapes.
Honig (Ger.) Honey.
hoogli See ugli fruit.
Hoppelpoppel (Ger.) Scrambled eggs with potatoes and bacon.
hopping John A dish of rice and beans-usually black-eyed peas; a
staple of Black cooking in the southern U.S. and Caribbean, traditional
for New Year's Day.
hops Ripe conical female flowers of the hop vine, used in brewing to
impart a bitter flavor to beer, in order to balance the sweetness of
the malt; in continental Europe the young male shoots of the hop
vine are eaten as a vegetable.
horchata (Sp.) A drink, usually of pumpkin seeds or almonds.
horehound A fragrant Old World herb of the mint family used to flavor
candy and medicine; also spelled hoarhound.
horenso (Jap. ) Spinach.
hornear (Sp.) To bake.
horno (Sp.) Oven; al horno means baked.
hors d'oeuvre (Fr.) Light and stimulating finger food eaten before the
main meal (literally, "outside the works") as an appetizer; the term
is often misspelled: when used as a collective noun it has no final s,
but a group of specific appetizers takes the plural s.
horseradish A vegetable related to mustard, whose pungent root is
grated and mixed with vinegar, then folded into a cream or tomato
sauce and served as a condiment or sauce; the tender leaves can be
used for salad; native to southeastern Europe.
Hospices de Beaune A fifteenth-century charitable hospital in Beaune,
France, endowed and maintained with some forty Cote de Beaune
vineyards; at the auspicious annual auction the wine, all very good,
often sets Burgundy prices for that year.
hotch-potch See hochepot and Lancashire hot pot.
hot cross buns (Brit.) A yeast roll, round, slightly sweet, and
traditionally iced with a white cross; eaten on Good Friday or during Lent.
hot pot See hochepot.
huachinango (Mex.) Red snapper.
hue jiao (Chin.) Hot peppercorns from Sichuan, reddish brown in
color; when roasted, crushed, and added to salt as a dipping sauce
they become hua jiao yen.
huckleberry A small black berry, similar to the blueberry but with a
darker color, lacking the blueberry's silvery sheen, larger seeds, and
tarter taste; the low shrub grows wild in North America, was praised
by Thoreau, and chosen by Mark Twain for the name of his greatest
fictional character.
huevo (Sp.) Egg.
huevos a la flamenco (Sp.) Eggs baked on a bed of peas, peppers,
onions, tomatoes, ham, and sausage.
huevos asturian (Sp.) Scrambled eggs with eggplant, tomatoes, and
fava beans.
huevos pasados por ague (Sp.) Soft-boiled eggs.
huevos rancheros Tortillas "country style"; that is, with eggs and a
hot spicy sauce.
huevos revueltos (Sp.) Scrambled eggs.
Huhn (Ger.) Chicken, hen, fowl.
huile (Fr.) Oil.
huitlacoche (Mex.) A fungus that grows on green corn cobs, making
a favorite stuffing for quesadillas or soup; the fungus makes the
kernels grow large, black, and deformed, but tastes delicious.
huitre (Fr.) Oyster.
hull To husk or remove the outer covering of a seed or fruit, as of a
nut, or the interior pith, as of a strawberry.
Hummer (Ger.) Lobster.
hummus (Mid. E. ) Chick-peas mashed to a paste with lemon juice and
garlic, flavored with tahini, and eaten with pita bread as an appetizer.
hun tun (Chin.) Wonton: a pasta like dough wrapper.
huo guo (or shuan yang rou) (Chin.) Mongolian hot pot.
hush puppies Deep-fried cornmeal dumplings, sometimes flavored with
chopped onions, usually eaten as a savory accompaniment to fried
fish; from the southern U.S..
ice See water ice.
ice cream A frozen dessert of cream that is sweetened, flavored
variously, and beaten during freezing to keep ice crystals from forming; a custard base is frequently, though not necessarily, used for rich flavor and smooth texture.
icing A confectionery mixture made of sugar, egg white, butter, flavorings, etc., used to cover or decorate cakes and other pastries; the various types, both cooked and uncooked, differ according to purpose.
icing sugar (Brit.) Confectioners' sugar.
ika (Jap. ) Squid.
Ile de France A region around Paris, the original Frankish kingdom,
famous for its fine produce, cheeses, bread, pastry, game, meat, and
fish; the Ile de France also lays claims to the culinary creations of
Paris's many fine restaurants.
ile fottante (Fr.) A dessert of meringue "islands" on a sea of custard; also sponge cake sliced, sprinkled with liqueur, spread with jam, nuts, and dried fruit, reshaped and covered with creme Chantilly, with custard or fruit puree poured
over all.
imam bayildi (Turk.) A cold vegetable dish of eggplant sauteed in olive oil with onions, tomatoes, garlic, and parsley; the name in Turkish means "the priest fainted"; spelled variously.
imbottito (It.) Stuffed.
impanato (It.) Breaded.
imperiale, a 1' (Fr.) Garnished with truffles, foie gras, cocks' combs and kidneys, sweetbreads, and Madeira sauce.
Indian fig See prickly pear.
Indian pudding Cornmeal pudding sweetened with molasses and spiced, made by early English settlers; also called hasty pudding.
indienne, a 1' (Fr.) Served with boiled rice and sauce flavored with curry powder.
infuse To steep or soak herbs, spices, or vegetables in a liquid to extract their flavor.
Inglenook A distinguished California vineyard in the Napa Valley that concentrates on varietal wines.
insalata (It.) Salad.
interlard To lard: to thread strips of pork fat or lardons through meat or other flesh in order to baste it during cooking.
involtine (It.) Scallops of meat, usually veal, or fish, pounded thin, stuffed, and rolled up; veal birds.
iota See jota.
Irish coffee Coffee laced with Irish whiskey, usually flavored with sugar, spices, and cream.
Irish Mist (Ir.) A liqueur made with Irish whiskey flavored with heather honey.
Irish moss See carrageen.
Irish soda bread A traditional Irish bread, usually baked in free-form rounds, whose- leavening agent is baking soda with buttermilk rather than yeast.
lschlertortchen (Ger.) A biscuit spread with jam.
isinglass Gelatin, obtained from the air bladder of sturgeon and other fish, which is pure and transparent.
Ismail Bayaldi (Fr.) A classic French garnish, originally from 'Turkey, of sliced fried eggplant, crushed tomatoes, rice pilaf, and sauce portugaise.
Italian meringue Meringue made by whipping hot sugar syrup into stiffly beaten egg whites; used to frost pastries, to lighten pastry and buttercreams, in souffles, and in sherbets.
Italienne, sauce (Fr.) A classic sauce of finely chopped mushrooms with diced ham and chopped parsley.
ivoire, sauce (Fr.) Sauce supreme with meat glaze, colored white.
Jack See Monterey Jack.
Jager, Jager Art (Ger.) Hunter's style-with mushrooms and usually
in a wine sauce.
jaiba (Mex.) Crab.
jalapeno (Mex.) A green chili pepper, very hot, about 2 1/2 inches long, generally used fresh.
jalousie (Fr.) Feuilletage pastry strip with a sweet filling, whose top layer is cut into parallel strips like a Venetian blind (hence its name).
jambalaya A dish from Cajun cuisine of rice with ham, shellfish,
sausage, chicken, and beans, seasoned with Creole vegetables and spices; the ingredients vary widely.
jambon (Fr.) Ham.
jamon (Sp.) Ham.
japonaise, a la (Fr.) Garnished with Chinese or Japanese artichokes
and potato croquettes.
jardiniere, a la (Fr.) Garnished with various fresh vegetables cooked
and arranged separately around the main piece of meat or poultry.
Jarlsberg (Nor.) A hard cows' milk cheese, made from partially skimmed milk nutty and sweet, made in large wheels, and similar to Emmental.
jarret (Fr.) Knuckle or hock.
Jerez de la Frontera A city in southern Spain whose outlying vineyards produce sherry (the name is an anglicization of Jerez).
Jerk: A cooking method that originated with the Arawak Indians of Jamaica. Traditionally for chicken or pork, but now commonly used on all types of food. Traditionally the food was placed in a pit and smoked. The term "jerked" meant poked with a sharp object. The holes were filled with spices. Today's Island/Carribbean version of jerked, is generally heavily marinated food cooked long and slow to emphasize the flavor from the spices.
jerky: Preserved meat, usually beef and originally sometimes buffalo, that is cut into thin strips and dried in the sun; used by the American Indians and early settlers as a staple for its keeping powers.
jeroboam A large wine bottle with the capacity of six ordinary bottles (about 4/5 of a gallon); named for the first king of the Hebrews.
Jerusalem artichoke A tuberous vegetable of the sunflower family, native to North America, whose knotty root is a versatile and nutritious foodstuff; also called sunchoke; "Jerusalem" is a corruption of the Italian girasole, meaning "sunflower."
ji (Chin.) Chicken; ji rou designates chicken meat.
jiang (Chin.) Sauce; the word also means ginger root.
jiang you (Chin.) Soy sauce in light, medium, and dark grades; light soy sauce, saltier and thinner, is used with seafood and chicken; dark soy sauce, thick, rich, and strong, is best with red meat roasts, stews, and barbecues.
jicama (Mex.) A root vegetable, crisp and slightly sweet, that resembles the turnip; used both raw and cooked.
jigger A volume measure of 1 1/2 ounces for making cocktails.
jitomate (Mex.) Tomato.
Johannisberg A German village in the Rheingau that produces fine wine; that from the Schloss Johannisberg, overlooking the Rhine, deserves its venerable reputation.
Johannisberg Riesling A fine white grape variety from Germany cultivated increasingly in California.
John Dory A saltwater fish found mainly in European waters, especially the Mediterranean, with two yellow rings on either side of the body, said to be the fingerprints of St. Peter (hence its French name, Saint Pierre); its delicate, white, flavorful flesh is valued in many recipes, either in fillets or chunks, as for bouillabaisse.
Johnny cake, jonny cake A hearth- or pancake of cornmeal, sometimes mixed with other grains, cooked in the ashes or in a griddle or pan; the name is often said to he derived from Shawnee and the cake originally from Rhode Island, but what is certain is that early American settlers adapted the native cornmeal to a familiar cooking method.
Joinville, a la (Fr.) Garnished with finely diced shrimp, truffles, mushrooms, and bound in sauce normande.
jota (It.) A robust soup of beans with sauerkraut, potatoes, and bacon cooked slowly; jota comes from Trieste, its unusual spelling a holdover from the Austro-Hungarian influence (the Italianized spelling is iota).
judia (Sp.) Kidney bean, string bean; judias verdes are green string beans.
jugged hare Hare (or other furred game) that is stewed in an earthenware pot or jug to which some of the animal's blood is added along with the cooking liquid.
jujube The fruit of a tropical Asian plant, sometimes called Chinese date, which is picked ripe, dried, and used to sweeten cough medicines; also the name of a candy.
julienne (Fr.) Vegetables or other foodstuffs cut into fine matchsticks; a clear consomme garnished with sauteed vegetables cut into matchsticks.
juniper An evergreen tree whose purple berries flavor gin, marinades, sauerkraut, and game dishes.
junket Milk curds formed with rennet and served as a custard like dessert.
Jurancon An unusual and renowned wine from the foothills of the Pyrenees in southwestern France, possessing a gold color and a sweet, spicy taste.
jus (Fr.) Juice; au jus means meat served with its natural juices; jus de viande means gravy.
Kabeljau (Ger.) Cod.
Kabinett (Ger.) Superior or special reserve unsweetened wine, usually
estate-bottled and from the Rheingau.
kabocha (Jap.) Pumpkin, squash.
kabu (Jap. ) Turnip.
Kaffee (Ger.) Coffee; afternoon coffee in Germany can include elaborate
cakes and sandwiches, a social occasion not unlike the English high tea.
Kahlua (Mex.) A coffee-flavored liqueur.
kailkenny A Scottish version of colcannon.
kake (Jap. ) Noodles.
kaki (Jap.) Persimmon; several European languages, including French,
have borrowed the word kaki for persimmon; it also means oyster in Japanese.
Kalb (Ger.) Veal.
Kalbschnitzel (Ger.) Veal cutlet cooked simply in butter.
Kalbshaxe (Ger.) Veal .shanks or knuckles. very popular in Bavaria.
kale A loose, green leafy vegetable of the cabbage family, highly nutritious; its hardiness in frost and snow makes it a winter staple in cold rural areas, where it appears in such country dishes as colcannon and kailkenny.
kalt (Ger.) Cold.
kamaboko (Jap.) Fish paste or sausage in many varieties.
kampyo (Jap.) Dried gourd shavings.
kani (Jap. ) Crab.
Kaninchen (Ger.) Rabbit.
kanten (Jap.) Agar-agar seaweed.
kao (Chin.) To roast or bake.
Kapaun (Ger.) Capon.
Kaper (Ger.) Caper.
karashi (Jap. ) Mustard.
Karfiol (Aus.) Cauliflower, in Austrian dialect. See also Blumenkohl.
kari (Ind.) Curry, seasoned sauce; also the aromatic leaves of the kari
kari-kari (Phil.) Oxtail stew flavored with garlic and onion, the sauce thickened with crushed peanuts and rice flour.
Karotte (Ger.) Carrot.
Karpfen (Ger.) Carp-a very popular fish in Germany and traditional
for Christmas Eve.
Kartoffel (Ger.) Potato; Kartoffelbrei means mashed potatoes, Kar-
toffelklosse means dumplings, and Kartoffelpuffer means potato pancakes.
Kase (Ger.) Cheese.
Kaseteller (Ger.) Cheese plate.
Kasetorte (Ger.) Cheesecake.
kasha (Russ.) Hulled, crushed, and cooked groats, usually buckwheat.
Kasnudeln (Ger.) Noodles stuffed with savory meat and cheese filling
or fruit and poppy seed filling for dessert.
Kasseler Rippenspeer (Ger.) Cured and smoked pork loin served on
a bed of sauerkraut, mashed potatoes, and apples or red cabbage and
potato dumplings, with a red wine and sour cream gravy; a great
favorite in Germany.
Kastanie (Ger.) Chestnut.
ketch (Ind.)Lamb..
Katenschinken (Ger.) Smoked country ham, originally from Schleswig-
Holstein; Katenwurst means smoked sausage from the same area; the
word Katen means peasant hut or cottage, where these meats were
originally cured.
katsuo-bushi (Jap.) Dried bonito flakes, essential in making dashi..
kebab (Turk. ) Small pieces of meat seasoned and often combined with
vegetables sometimes skewered and grilled over an open fire.
kedgeree (Ind.) See kitcheri.
kefir Fermented milk slightly effervescent and alcoholic, widely consumed in the Middle East and Russia; the kefir bacteria sours the milk (usually cows'), making it thick, frothy, and healthful.
Keks (Ger.) Biscuit.
Kellerabfullung (Ger.) See Original-Abfullung.
Kellerabzug (Ger.) See Original-Abfullung.
kelp See konbu.
ketchup Savory sauce or condiment, Chinese in origin, made from a
variety of foodstuffs, such as mushrooms, anchovies, or oysters pickled
in brine; our commercially manufactured tomato ketchup is a sorry
comedown; also spelled catchup catsup, and katsup.
Key lime pie A pie originally made from a variety of lime grown on
the Florida Keys that is no longer commercially cultivated; the pie
has a pastry or graham-cracker crust with an egg yolk, condensed
milk, and lime-juice filling, with a meringue topping.
khoya (Ind.) Milk "fudge," very thick and reduced.
kibbeh (Mid. E.) Bulghur and ground lamb, onions, and pine nuts,
deep-fried or served raw; its origin is Lebanese and it has many variations.
kidney A pair of organs embedded in white fat; excellent for various
culinary preparations trimmed of exterior membrane and interior
gristle, then sauteed or broiled quickly or braised slowly in stews or
meat pies; veal and lamb kidneys are considered best.
kielbasa ( Poll ) Sausage made of pork, sometimes beef or veal, flavored with garlic, smoked, and cooked; its links are very long.
Kiev, chicken a la See chicken a la Kiev.
kiku (Jap.) Edible chrysanthemum.
kikurage (Jap.) Cloud ear or wood ear mushroom, usually dried.
kim chee (Kor.) A pungent Korean condiment of pickled shredded
vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, radishes, cucumbers, greens,
onions, garlic, and chili peppers, seasoned with fermented shellfish
and salt; the condiment varies widely in its strength and is especially
common in winter, when fresh vegetables are unavailable; also spelled
keem chee and kim chit
king crab A large variety of crab living in northern Pacific waters and growing up to twenty pounds; the meat is usually sold cooked and
frozen; also called Alaska king crab and Japanese crab.
king salmon See salmon.
Kipferl (Ger.) A crescent-shaped roll, sweeter and doughier than a croissant.
kippered herring, kipper (Brit.) Herring that has been split, lightly salted, dried, and smoked to preserve it; a favorite breakfast dish.
Kir See cassis.
Kirsch (Ger.) Cherry.
Kirschwasser (Ger.) A colorless liqueur distilled from the fermented mash of wild cherries, especially those grown in the French Alsace and the German Black Forest; often used as a flavoring in confectionery and pastry; sometimes called simply Kirsch
kisser (Russ.) A berry pudding, often made with pureed strawberries, thickened with potato flour; also used as a dessert sauce.
kitcheri (Ind.)Kedgeree; cooked rice, lentils, and spices, of Hindi origin; when the English anglicized this dish they often served it with leftover fish, hard-boiled eggs, and curry, which is how it survives as a breakfast dish in England today.
kited fillet Fish cut through along the backbone and filleted but left attached at the belly.
kiwi A small tree of Chinese origin whose plum shaped fruit is covered with a thin layer of brownish fuzz; once peeled, the soft green interior with small black seeds radiating from a pale green center is entirely edible, tasting somewhere between a strawberry and melon; also called Chinese gooseberry, but recently marketed as kiwi.
Klopse (Ger.) Ground meatballs usually containing two or three kinds of meat; Konigsberger Klopse are poached meatballs of pork with veal or beef, flavored with anchovies and served with a lemon, sour cream, and caper sauce; from the Slavic northeast.
Klosse (Ger.) Dumplings or meatballs; the singular is Kloss.
Kloster Eberbach See Steinberg.
Knackwurst (Ger.) Sausages similar to hot dogs but thicker.
knadlach (Jew. ) Dumplings of matzo meal, egg, ground almonds, and chicken fat dropped into chicken broth; spelled variously.
knead To work dough with the fingers and heels of the hand in order to distribute ingredients uniformly, develop the gluten, and produce an even texture ready for rising.
knish (Jew.) (.hopped chicken livers or kasha wrapped in a pastry of mashed potatoes, flour, and chicken fat; from Eastern Europe.
knoblauch (Cier. ) Garlic.
Knodel (Ger.) Dumpling.
Kobe beef (Jap. ) Japanese steer raised and pampered to an impeccably high standard for its delectably tender meat which, in accordance, is exorbitantly expensive.
kofta ( Ind./Turk. ) Meatballs of ground lamb, beef, or veal, variously seasoned and spelled, eaten throughout the Balkans, North Africa, Middle and Far East.
Kohl (Ger.) Cabbage; Kohlrouden is cabbage stuffed with ground meats and braised.
kohlrabi A vegetable in the cabbage family whose stem swells just above the ground into a bulbous knob; this bulb, the long stems, and the leaves are edible and taste like cabbage and turnip, which together give it its name; favored in central and eastern Europe and Asia.
koi-kuchi shoya (Jap.) Dark soy sauce, thicker and heavier but less salty than light soy sauce (usu-kuchi shoya).
Kompott (Ger.) Compote of stewed fruit.
konbu (Jap. ) Dried kelp, essential in making dash); sometimes spelled kombu.
Konditorei (Ger.) A pastry shop, where coffee and hot chocolate are offered to sample pastries with.
Konigenpastete (Ger.) Pastry filled with meat and mushrooms or other savory fillings.
konnyaku (Jap.) Literally, "devil's tongue jelly"; a translucent cake made from arum root.
Kopfsalat (Ger.) Lettuce salad, head of lettuce.
korma (Inc. ) To braise, braised; the word also designates a spicy stew, often of lamb or mutton, braised with a thick yogurt and cream sauce.
Korn (Ger.) Grain, cereal; the word means the dominant grain in a specific region, whether rye, wheat, or barley-not necessarily corn.
kosher (Jew.) According to Jewish dietary laws, the kashruth, as set forth in the Talmud.
Kotelett (Ger.) Cutlet, chop.
Krabbe (Ger.) Crab; the plural Krabben often means shrimp.
Krakauer (Ger.) Polish ham sausage.
Krapfen (Ger.) Sweet Bavarian fritters, similar to doughnuts.
Kraut (Ger.) Plant, herb, greens; on a menu the word usually means cabbage.
kreatopita (Ger..) A meat pie wrapped in phyllo dough.
Krebs (Ger.) Crab, crayfish.
Kren (Ger.) Horseradish; Krenfleisch is top round of beef boiled, sliced, and served with bread, gherkins, and horseradish, from Bavaria.
kreplach (Jew.) Small dough turnovers with savory filling, often served in soup.
Kreuznach A town on the Nahe River, west of the Rhine, that is the center of the valley's wine industry; a good wine school is locate there.
Kronsbeer (Ger.) A berry similar to the cranberry.
krupnik (Jew.) Mushroom barley soup.
knai zi (Chin.) Chopsticks.
Kuche (Ger.) Kitchen, cooking.
Kuchen (Ger.) Cake, tart, pastry.
kodamono (Jap. ) Fruit.
kugel (Jew.) A baked casserole or pudding.
Kugelhopf (Ger.) A yeast cake, sometimes made from brioche dough, flavored with currants steeped in brandy and baked in a special fluted
mold strewn with almonds; now a specialty of Alsace, it is originally
from Austria where it is called Gugelhapf; each region having its
traditional molds.
kulibyaka (Russ.) A pie filled with layers of salmon or fish, rice or
kasha, herbs, mushrooms, onion, etc., oval in shape, large or small in
size; French haute cuisine has adapted it as coulibiac
kulich (Russ.) A tall cylindrical cake in the shape of a priest's hat,
flavored with fruit, almonds, and saffron; this is the Russian Orthodox
ceremonial dessert for Easter, decorated with the letters XB, signifying
"Christ is Risen," and traditionally served with paskha.
kummel (Russ.) A Russian liqueur made from caraway and, according
to some authorities, cumin seeds.
kumquat A small oval citrus fruit, native to China, eaten whole, either
fresh or preserved in syrup, and often used as a garnish; its rind is
sweeter than its pulp; the name means "golden orange" in Cantonese.
kuri (Jap. ) Chestnuts.
Kutteln (Ger.) Tripe.
kvass (Russ.) A fermented drink similar to beer, made from yeast, rye,
and barley; it is used to flavor borsch, chlodnik, and other soups;
sometimes spelled kwas.
kyuri (Jap.) Japanese cucumber.
Labna, labneh (Mid. E.) Yogurt whose whey has been drained off, shaped into balls, rolled in herbs or spices, and preserved in olive oil; eaten with bread.
Labrusca The grape varieties originating from America. The American grapes cannot be identified by shape, size, or color, but by their skin type. They have slip skins that are easily separated from the flesh of the grape. The seeds, however, are embedded and cling to the fleshy pulp.
Labskaus (Ger.) "Seaman's stew" from Hamburg, of pickled pork or beef cooked with onions and potatoes, sometimes with pickled fish, beets, or gherkins as garnish.
Lachryma Christi A white wine from the vineyards on Mt. Vesuvius near Naples, Italy, pale gold and fairly dry; the name means "tears of Christ"; a sparkling white wine with the same name is made elsewhere in Italy.
Lachs (Ger.) Salmon.
Lacon con grelos (Sp.) Cured pork shoulder with turnip tops-a famous dish from Galicia.
Lactic acid The acid in sour milk produced by bacterial starter culture, which turns lactose (milk sugar) into lactic acid, causing the coagulation of the milk and the first step in the cheese making process; lactic acid is also present in rested muscle tissue and acts as a natural preservative in slaughtered meat.
Lafite, Chateau A great Bordeaux vineyard, from Pauillac in the HautMedoc, which fully deserves its fame; ranked a first growth in 1855, it is owned by the Rothschild family; the wine is full-bodied and long lived, with remarkable bouquet and depth-perhaps the greatest red wine of all.
Lager Bottom-fermented beer that has been aged; most American beers are lager.
Lait (Fr. ) Milk.
Laitue (Fr.) Lettuce.
La jiao jiang (Chin.) Hot chili sauce; a condiment made from chili peppers, vinegar, and seasonings; red in color, red hot in taste.
Lal mirch (Ind.) Red pepper.
Lambrusco A slightly effervescent red wine, fruity, fragrant, and pleasant, made near Modena from the lambrusco grape.
Lamb's lettuce A plant indigenous to Europe, whose dark green, nuttyflavored leaves are used for winter salads; it is prized by the French; also called corn salad and mache.
Lampone (It.) Raspberry.
Lamprey A salt- or freshwater fish similar to the eel; its fatty flesh is eaten in various ways, most often stewed.
Lancashire (Brit.) A creamy white cows' milk cheese from England, cooked and pressed yet still soft and crumbly; true farmhouse Lancashire has a full flavor and excellent melting qualities for Welsh rarebit and other dishes, but travels poorly or not at all; the factory-made variety is a pale comparison.
Lancashire hot pot (Brit.) A traditional English stew of secondary cuts of lamb, especially neck, stewed with layered potatoes and onions, lamb kidneys and oysters often included; a relative of the French hochepot.
Landjager (Cier.) A smoked sausage from Swabia.
Langouste (Fr.) Rock or spiny lobster (U.S.), called saltwater crayfish or crawfish in Britain; found in the Mediterranean and Pacific, its claws are small, so most of the meat comes from the tail; when cooked its color is paler than lobster; the Spanish word for this crustacean is langosta
Langoustine (Fr.) A small lobster, a saltwater crayfish; also called Dublin Bay prawn (Brit.), Norway lobster, and scampo (It.).
Langue (Fr.) Tongue.
Langues-de-chat (Fr.) Long, thin cookies whose shape resembles a cat's tongue, hence the name; because they are light and dry, they often accompany simple desserts and sweet wines.
Languedoc A region in southeastern France along the Mediterranean a former province, with wonderful produce and an excellent gastronomic tradition; some of its specialties are cassoulet, confit, brandade de morue, Roquefort, Bonzigues oysters, and other seafood, to name just a few.
Languedocienne, a la (Fr.) Meat or poultry garnished with eggplant rounds, cepes, and tomatoes concasses, all sauteed in oil, with chopped parsley.
Lapin (Fr.) Rabbit; lapin de garenne is wild rabbit; lapin en gibelotte is rabbit stew with onions, mushrooms, and lardons, in white wine sauce.
Lapsang Souchong See Souchong.
lard Rendered pork fat, excellent for flaky pastry because of its solidity and for deep-frying because of its high smoke point and purity; as a saturated fat high in cholesterol, however, it is not very healthful. See also interlard.
Lard de poitrine fume (Fr.) Bacon.
Larder (Fr.) To lard, to interlard.
Lardo (It.) Salt pork; lardo affumicato is bacon.
Lardon (Fr.) Lardoon; larding fat cut into long strips and threaded through lean cuts of meat by a special larding needle in order to moisten the meat as it cooks; the term also includes pork or bacon, diced, blanched, and fried, used to flavor and moisten braised dishes and stews.
Largo (Mex.) A long, thin chili pepper, pale yellow green in color, fairly hot; often used in soups and stews.
Lasagne (It.) Large flat ribbons of pasta about 4 1/2 inches wide, baked in layers with sauce, cheese, or other filling; lasagne is usually made with egg and often pureed spinach as well to color it green.
Lassam (Ind.)Garlic.
Lassi (Ind.) Yogurt flavored with rosewater and sugar.
Latkes (Jew.) Potatoes grated and fried in pancakes, traditionally eaten at Hanukkah.
Latour, Chateau A great and renowned Bordeaux vineyard in Pauillac in the Haut-Medoc; ranked a first growth, it deserves its place next to Margaux and Lafite; the wine is deep colored, and long lived.
latte (It.) Milk.
Lattuga (It.) Lettuce.
Lauch (Ger.) Leek.
Lauro (It.) Bay leaf.
La Varenne, Francois Pierre de Seventeenth-century chef and author of Le Cuisiner Francais* ( 1651), a landmark cookbook which, breaking
with the Middle Ages, began the culinary tradition of the golden age to follow; La Varenne set up a system of ready stocks, liaisons (roux first appeared in his book), force meats, and herb and spice mixtures to be drawn upon as needed.
laver Thin, black seaweed used in Japanese cooking and called nori in Japan; in Wales it is often called laverbread.
Leavening Any agent that produces gas in dough or batter by means of fermentation, thus raising and lightening it. Yeast, baking powder, and baking soda are all common forms of leavening; beaten egg whites, although they do not involve fermentation, are another kind of leavening.
Leber (Ger.) Liver.
Leberkas (Ger.) Meat loaf or pate of mixed ground meats, from Bavaria
Leberknodelsuppe (Ger.) Soup of clear meat broth with liver dumplings, from Bavaria.
Leberwurst (Ger.) A smoked sausage made from ground pork liver and (usually) pork or veal meat.
Lebkuchen (Ger.) Spiced honey cake traditionally eaten at Christmas.
Leche (Sp.) Milk; the word can also mean custard.
lechecillas (Sp.) Sweetbreads.
Lechuga (Sp.) Lettuce.
Leckerli (Switz.) Rectangular biscuit, flavored with cinnamon, honey, dried citrus peel, and almonds; from Basel.
Leek An ancient member of the lily family, originating in the Mediterranean; its flavor, more subtle than that of other onions, lends itself to soups, stews, and braised dishes; because the leek lacks a well-defined bulb, dirt gets well down into its leaves, necessitating careful washing.
Lees The sediment that settles in the wine barrel before bottling.
Legumbres (Sp.) Vegetables; legumbres secos are dried vegetables.
Legume The seed pod of leguminous plants whose peas or beans arc eaten fresh (sprouted or not) and dried for their high protein and carbohydrate value; legumes are an important staple food crop in much of the world.
Legumes (Fr.) Vegetables.
Legumi (It.) Vegetables.
Leicester (Brit.) A whole milk cows' cheese, cooked and pressed, made in large cylinders; it has a hard brownish red rind and a yellow, flaky but moist interior; similar to Cheddar, English farmhouse Leicester has a tangy, rich flavor.
Lekach (Jew.) A honey and spice cake, traditional for Rosh Hashanah
lemon balm A Mediterranean herb whose leaves, faintly lemon-scented, are used in salads, compotes, drinks, tea, and in the making of Chartreuse.
lemon curd Lemon juice, sugar, butter, and egg yolks mixed together and cooked slowly until the yolks thicken (but do not curdle); used for pastries.
lemon grass See sorrel.
lemon thyme See thyme.
lemon verbena An herb whose lemon-scented leaves flavor teas and salads; native to South America.
lengua de ternere (Sp.) Calf's tongue.
lenguado (Sp.) Sole.
lenticchie (It.) Lentils.
lentil A legume that originated in Southwest Asia; high in nutrients, it has been a staple in the Middle East and Central Asia for millennia and is cultivated in many varieties.
lepre (It.) Hare; lepre in salmi is jugged hare.
lesso (It.) Boiled, especially boiled meat.
levee, pate (Fr.) See pate levee.
leveret (Fr.) Young hare.
Leyden (Neth.) A hard Dutch cheese similar to Edam, made from partially skimmed cows' milk; the curd is cooked, flavored with cumin, caraway, and spices, molded, and pressed.
liaison (Fr.) Binding or thickening of soup or sauce by means of egg yolk, blood, or starch such as flour (see beurre manic and roux), arrowroot, cornstarch, or tapioca.
lichi, lichee See Iychee.
licorice, liquorice A plant, native to the Middle East, whose name derives from the Greek for "sweet root"; the ancients used the root for medicinal purposes, while today its anise flavoring is used primarily for candy; before sugar cane, strips of the raw root were chewed as a kind of candy.
licuado (Sp.) Fruit drink, especially citrus.
Liebfraumilch A catchall name for Rhine wine, almost all very ordinary; the name means "milk of the Blessed Mother."
Liederkranz A pasteurized cows' milk cheese invented by a Swiss immigrant in the U.S. and named after a choral society; it is a soft, mild, surface-ripened cheese shaped in rectangles.
liegeoise, a la (Fr.) Garnished with juniper berries.
lier (Fr.) To blend.
lievre (Fr.) Hare.
lights The lungs of an animal, used in the U.S. for pet food but in other countries combined with other organs and meat in stews, pates, etc., for human consumption.
li jiang (Chin.) Oyster sauce, consisting of oysters, salt, and seasonings concentrated into a thick paste; used mostly in Cantonese cooking.
lima (Sp.) Lime; the Mexican lima agria is a sour lime from the Yucatan
limande (Fr.) Lemon sole.
Limburger A pasteurized cows' milk cheese, originally Belgian but now German; soft, surface-ripened, creamy yellow, dense, with a strong and characteristic smell.
lime, limette (Fr.) Lime.
limon (Fr.) Lime.
limon (Sp.) Lemon.
limone (It.) Lemon.
limousine, a la (Fr.) Garnished with red cabbage.
lingua di bue (It.) Ox tongue.
lingue di passero (It.) Very thin, flat, egg less pasta; literally, "sparrows' tongues."
linguica (Sp.) Pork sausage flavored with garlic; similar to chorizo.
linguine (It.) Thin flat egg less pasta.
Linse (Ger.) Lentil.
Linsensuppe (Ger.) Lentil soup with sausage.
Linzertorte (Aus.) An Austrian tart of ground hazelnut pastry filled with raspberry jam and covered with a lattice work crust.
Liptauer A ewes' milk cheese, originally German, now made in Hungary; soft, dense, rindless, and strong, it is made in small blocks.
litchi See Iychee.
Livarot (Fr.) A whole-milk cows' cheese from the town of the same name in Normandy, made in one-pound discs; the cheese is soft, even-textured, and tangy in flavor, with a hard, shiny surface; colored yellow or dyed deep red with annatto, it is a fall or winter cheese.
lobster A family of marine crustaceans, including the saltwater crayfish, rock or spiny lobster, Spanish lobster, and American or Maine lobster; its delicate, lean, flavorful meat-concentrated in the large tail and sometimes the claws-its coral (roe), and tomalley (liver) all are prized in cooking.
locust bean See carob.
Loganberry A hybrid cultivar of the blackberry, developed by Judge James Logan in California; the fruit is darker, larger, and more prolific than the raspberry and milder in flavor; excellent for cooking.
loin A cut of beef from the hindquarter, between the rib and round; the full loin contains the tenderest cuts within the sirloin and short loin.
Loire The longest river in France, flowing northwest from near Lyons to the Atlantic at Nantes; there are many diverse vineyards in its valley, mostly white and some quite fine, including Pouilly-Fume, Sancerre, Vouvray, Saumur, and Muscadet.
lombo, lombata (It.) Loin; the Spanish word is lomo.
London broil A cut of beef from the flank-one thin, flat muscle that is usually either braised or broiled and sliced on an angle; other cuts from different sections of beef are sometimes loosely called London broil.
longanzia (Sp.) A large pork sausage flavored with garlic, marjoram, and pimiento.
longe de veau (Fr.) Loin of veal.
lonza (It.) Loin; the word often means cured loin of pork.
loquat A plum-shaped golden fruit from a small Oriental tree, sometimes called the Chinese or Japanese medlar; because it ripens in March it was very popular in Europe before air travel, as it is the first fruit to ripen in spring; now that fresh fruit is flown from the other side of the globe, the bland but juicy loquat is mostly used in jams and jellies.
Lorraine A region in northeastern France (a former duchy) bordering on Germany, Luxembourg, and Belgium; its excellent cuisine and wines, like Lorraine's political history, show the influence of Germany, with many distinguished dishes using pork veal, geese, crayfish, apples, eggs and cream, and pastries.
lorraine, a la (Fr. ) Garnished with braised red cabbage balls and olive shaped potatoes sauteed in butter.
lotte (Fr.) Monkfish.
loup (Fr.) Sea bass; the word also means wolf.
lovage An herb once popular but little used today, whose unusual and strong celery flavor seasons meat stews and stocks; its leaves, stems roots, and seeds can all be used; it is indigenous to the Mediterranean and resembles overgrown celery in appearance.
lox (Jew.) Salmon, usually from the Pacific Ocean, cured (but not smoked, as it used to be) with salt, then soaked in water to remove some of the salt; often eaten with cream cheese on bagels; see also nova.
lubina (Sp.) Sea bass.
luganeaga (It.) Mild, fresh pork sausage flavored with Parmesan cheese made in long tubes without links.
lumaca (It.) Snail; the plural is lumache.
lumpia (Phil.) A thin pastry wrapper enclosing a savory filling, either fresh and wrapped in a lettuce leaf or deep-fried like a spring roll.
lutefisk (Scand. ) Dried cod soaked in a Iye bath of potash, eaten with cream sauce or pork drippings.
lychee (Chin.) The fruit of a small tree, also called the Chinese plum often used in Oriental cuisine; the exterior of the nut like fruit is a thin red scaly shell; the soft, white, fleshy interior surrounds a stone the fruit is eaten fresh, dried, canned, or preserved in syrup both as
a fruit dessert and as an accompaniment to savory foods; spelled variously.
Lymeswold (Brit.) A new English cheese recently developed on a large commercial scale; it is essentially a mild blue Brie, combining the delicate white rind and soft creamy paste with blue veining. The name has no particular meaning but was devised by marketing specialists; called Westminster for export.
Lyonerwurst (Ger.) Ham sausage flavored with garlic.
lyonnaise, a la (Fr.) With onions; Iyonnaise sauce in classic cuisine is chopped onions sauteed in butter, reduced with white wine and vinegar, demi-grace added, and strained; the city of Lyons, located near Beaujolais, where the Rhone and Saone Rivers flow together, has a renowned gastronomic tradition.
maanz (Ind.)Meat.
maatjes herring (Neth.) See mattes herring.
macadamia nut Nut from a tree native to Australia but now cultivated
mostly in Hawaii; usually shelled and roasted before purchase, the
round nut is white, sweet, and high in fat, making it prized as a dessert nut.
macaroni See maccheroni.
macaroon A small, light, round cookie made of almond paste, sugar,
and egg whites; in Italy, where they probably originated, these pastries
are called amaretti.
maccarello (It.) Mackerel.
maccheroni (It.) Macaroni, tube-shaped pasta; except in Naples (where
it is spelled macaroni), Italians spell this type of pasta thus. In eighteenth-century England, young dandies who on their return from Italy
affected continental dress and style were called macaronis, hence
the famous ``stuck a feather in his hat and called it macaroni."
mace A spice made from the lacy covering of the nutmeg seed, dried
to an orange brown color and usually powdered; mace tastes
like nutmeg with a hint of cinnamon and is used more widely in savory
dishes than is nutmeg.
macedoine (Fr.) A mixture of fruits or vegetables served hot or cold;
its name refers to the racial variety of Macedonia.
macerate To steep food in liquid; usually refers to fresh fruit steeped in liqueur.
mache (Fr.) Lamb's lettuce.
machi (Inc. ) Fish.
Macon A town in southern Burgundy on the Saone River and the center
of its wine trade; Macon wines are red, white, and rose, strictly limited according to grape variety; Maconnais is the large wine-producing region encompassing Macon.
Madeira A Portuguese island in the Atlantic famous for its fortified wines, which are 18-20 percent alcohol; aged and blended in soleras like
sherry, the special character and longevity of Madeira comes from
the long and gradual heating process called estufa, Madeira wines
range from very dry to very sweet, so they are suitable for aperitif
and dessert wines as well as for cooking; specific types of Madeira
are separately entered.
madeleine (Fr.) A small cake made of flour, sugar, butter, and eggs
baked in a special shell mold; its origin is uncertain, but the town
of Commercy is famous for madeleines, Louis XV favored them, and
Proust gave them immortality with the beginning of A la Recherche
de Temps Perdu.
madere (Fr.) A classic French sauce of demi-grace flavored with
maderise (Fr. ) Wine that is partially spoiled by oxidation; a maderized wine has acquired a brownish color and the special aroma of Madeira due to the effects of excessive heat.
madrilene (Fr.) Beef consomme flavored with tomato.
mafalde, mafaldine (It.) Long pasta strips with fluted edges, in medium and narrow widths.
maggiorana (It.) Marjoram.
magnum A double-sized wine bottle that helps exceptional Bordeaux
or Burgundies mature to their fullest, but not advantageous to the
development of other wines.
magret, maigret (Fr.) Breast of duck cooked rare.
maiale (It.) Pork; suckling pig is maigletto.
maigre (Fr.) An adjective denoting thin, lean, low-fat; food suitable
for fast days, as prescribed by the Roman Catholic Church. At first
only vegetable dishes were allowed during Advent, Lent, and days
before important feasts; gradually, butter, milk, eggs, and cold-blooded
animals, including fish and eventually waterfowl, were allowed, with
many dispensations. The Italian word is magro.
maionese (It.) Mayonnaise; the Spanish word is mahonesa
maison (Fr.) Literally, "house"; designates a dish made by a restaurant's own special method, such as pate maison.
maitre d' hotel (Fr.) The person in charge of a restaurant dining room, who must command every aspect of service to patrons; originally, in royal or noble households, it was a position of great importance; the
informal maitre d' is often used. Maitre d'hotel butter is seasoned
with chopped parsley and lemon juice.
maize Corn; the French word mais actually means sweet corn, while
the Spanish word maiz means dried corn.
makhan (Ind.) Butter.
maki (Jap. ) Rolled.
mako See shark.
Malaga A .sweet, heavy, dark sherry from the region north of the
southern Spanish city of the same name, where it is blended.
malai (Ind.)Cream ( all kinds ).
Malbec (Fr.) A red-wine grape variety used for some better Bordeaux
wines; faster-maturing than Cabernet.
Malmsey (Brit.) The English name for Malvasia, a grape variety
producing very sweet, heavy, golden Madeira that turns amber with age; the wine, originally Greek, is produced elsewhere, but that of Madeira
is the most famous.
malt Germinated barley used in brewing and distilling; malt extract,
highly nourishing, is used to make food for children and invalids. In
a malted milk, the malt powder is dissolve-d in milk, and other flavorings, such as chocolate, are sometimes added.
maltagliati (It.) "Badly cut" flat pasta about l inch thick and cut on
the bias; used mainly for bean soups.
maltaise (Fr.) A classic sauce of hollandaise flavored with grated
orange zest and blood orange juice; the cold sauce maltaise is may-
onnaise similarly flavored.
Malvasia See Malmsey.
Malzbier (Ger.) Dark, sweet, malty beer, low in alcohol.
mame (Jap. ) Bean.
mamey See mammee.
mammee A tall tropical tree that grows in Central and South America;
its round fruit, with smooth orange pulp, is eaten fresh and in ice
manche (Fr.) The projecting bone on a chop; a manchette is a frill
used to cover the bone; for manche a gigot see gigot.
Manchego (Sp.) A pale, golden, dense ewes' milk cheese from Spain;
the curd is molded, pressed, salted in brine, and cured; the rind has
a greenish black mold that is sometimes brushed off and replaced
with a thin smearing of olive oil. Manchego also means in the style
of La Mancha.
mandarine (Fr.) Tangerine.
Mandel (Ger.) Almond; the Italian word is mandorla
mandoline (Fr.) A tool, somewhat resembling the musical instrument'
used to cut vegetables evenly and quickly into thick or thin, furrowed
or smooth slices.
mange-tout (Fr. ) A pea or bean, such as the snow pea or sugar-snap,
whose pod and seeds are literally eaten all together.
mango A tropical evergreen tree, Indian or Malayan in origin, whose
fully-ripened fruit is perhaps the most luscious of all fruits; varying
in size, shape, and color, it is usually a deep orange color and pear
shaped, with smooth golden flesh; mangoes are eaten fresh or cooked
in preserves and chutneys, still green.
manicotti (It.) Flat circular sheets of pasta stuffed variously and baked in a sauce.
manic See beurre manic.
manioc See tapioca.
Manteca (It.) A spun-curd cows' milk cheese from southern Italy
wrapped around a pat of butter; the name comes from the Spanish
word for butter, mantequilla; this small cheese is also called Bum;
Burrino or Butirro, locally.
mantecado (Sp.) Rich vanilla ice cream with whipped cream folded in.
mantequilla (Sp.) Butter.
manzana (Sp.) Apple.
Manzanilla An extremely dry pale Spanish sherry with a special,
almost bitter, taste; drunk mostly in Spain, especially in Seville.
manzanilla (Sp.) Camomile, camomile tea.
manzo (It.) Bcef.
maple syrup Syrup made from the sap of sugar maples and certain
other maple trees in northeastern North America. The trees are tapped
with a spigot .set into the tree trunk. The sap begins to run in late
winter in a natural process not entirely understood by scientists, but
recognized by the American Indians and certain animals; the sap is
boiled down into syrup and even further into maple sugar.
maquereau (Fr.) Mackerel.
maraschino A liqueur made from the marasca cherry and its crushed
stones, originally from Yugoslavia and now from Italy as well. Maraschino cherries are cooked in artificially colored syrup and flavored with imitation liqueur-a far cry from the original.
marbled A term used to describe meat, especially beef, that has small
flecks of fat throughout the muscle tissue. Such meat is generally considered high quality for its juiciness and flavor when cooked. Marbled pastry has light and dark dough swirled together so that it resembles marble stone.
mare (Fr.) Pomade: usually grape or sometimes apple skins and seeds, remaining after the juice has been pressed; eau de vie de mare (often shortened to mare) is the strong brandy distilled from these residual solids; known in Italy as grappa
marcassin (Fr.) Young wild boar.
marchand de vin (Fr.) A classic sauce for grilled meats, similar to Bercy or bordelaise: red wine is flavored with chopped shallots and parsley and well reduced; butter is then beaten in. The name means wine merchant.
Marcobrunn A well-known vineyard from the German Rheingau producing one of the very best white wines.
marechale, a la (Fr.) Small cuts of meat or poultry, egg and bread crumbed, fried in butter, and garnished with sliced truffles, asparagus tips, or green peas.
maree (Fr.) All saltwater fish and shellfish.
Marengo, a la (Fr.) Chicken pieces browned in olive oil, braised with tomatoes, garlic, and brandy, and garnished with fried eggs, crayfish, and sometimes croutons. This famous dish was devised by Napoleon's chef Dunand after the defeat of the Austrians at Marengo in 18()(), when no other food could be found.
margarine A butter substitute, originally made from animal fats and now from vegetable fats, developed in 1869 by a French chemist.
Margaux A wine-producing commune in the French Haut-Medoc that produces exceptional Bordeaux, including some of the most famous: Chateau Margaux, Brane-Cantenac, Palmer, Kirwan.
Margaux, Chateau A Bordeaux wine, from Margaux in the Haut-Medoc; a first-growth wine (see classed growth) and one of the world's very finest red wines.
Marguery (Fr.) A classic sauce of hollandaise flavored with oyster liquor and garnished with poached oysters.
Maribo (Den.) A semihard pasteurized cows' milk cheese from the Danish island of Lolland; the large oblong cheeses have a yellow wax coating, a white paste with small holes, and a flavor that grows quite strong with age.
Marie Louise (Fr.) A classic garnish of artichoke hearts filled with mushroom puree and Soubise.
marignan (Fr. ) A boat-shaped pastry made of rich yeast dough soaked in rum-flavored syrup, brushed with apricot jam, and filled with creme Chantilly.
marigold A plant with bright golden flowers used fresh or dried as an
herb or dye.
Marille (Ger.) Apricot.
marinade A liquid, including seasonings and acid (vinegar or wine), in
which food is steeped before cooking in order to flavor, moisten, and
soften it.
marinara, alla (It.) Literally "sailor style"; a loose term often meaning a simple tomato sauce flavored with garlic and herbs, often served with fettucine or other pasta.
mariniere, a la (Fr.) Literally "sailor style"; seafood cooked in white wine with chopped shallots, parsley, and butter and garnished with
mussels; moules mariniere is the classic example.
marinierter Hering (Ger.) Pickled herring.
mariscos (Sp.) Shrimp or scallops; shellfish.
marjolaine (Fr.) A famous pastry created by Fernand Point of almond
and filbert dacquoise layered with chocolate, praline, and buttercream.
Marjolaine also means sweet marjoram.
marjoram, sweet marjoram An herb in many varieties, originally Med-
iterranean, from the mint family; it is used in diverse savory dishes.
marmalade Citrus fruit jam, usually from bitter Seville oranges with the rind included, stewed for a long time and reduced to a thick preserve. Marmalade is indispensable to a proper British breakfast. The word derives from the Portuguese word for quince, marmelo.
marmelade (Fr.) A thick sweetened fruit puree (or occasionally onion),
reduced to a jam like consistency; not be be confused with marmalade.
marmite (Fr.) A large covered pot, usually earthenware but sometimes
metal, for cooking large quantities of food; Marmite is a brand name
for a type of yeast extract. See also petite marmite.
Maroilles (Fr. ) A soft, uncooked cows' milk cheese, invented a thousand years ago by the monks at the Abbey of Maroilles in Flanders; square with a reddish rind and pale yellow interior, it is ripened up to six months with regular washings of the rind in brine; the flavor is creamy, rich, and tangy, the aroma attractively strong; also called Marolles
marquise (Fr.) A fruit ice with whipped cream folded in.
marron (Fr.) A cultivated chestnut used as a vegetable, for stuffings,
and for pastry; marrons glaces-whole peeled chestnuts poached
for a long time and glazed in a thick syrup-are a choice delicacy.
marrow A large summer squash similar to zucchini.
marrow bone A large beef or veal bone cut into short segments and
poached or braised to solidify the rich and nutritious interior marrow,
which is then scooped out and spread or diced; marrow is prized in
such recipes as osso buco and sauce bordelaise.
Marsala An Italian fortified dessert wine, 17 - 19 percent alcohol, from the Sicilian city of the same name. The wine is a deep amber color,
usually dry but sometimes sweet, roughly comparable to sherry; it
is an important ingredient in zabaglione.
marshmallow A confection made from egg whites, sugar, and gelatin,
originally flavored with the root of the marshmallow plant.
Marzenbier (Ger.) A strong, medium-colored beer traditionally brewed
in March (hence its name) and drunk in spring and summer; any
remaining beer is consumed at festivals such as Oktoberfest.
marzipan A paste of ground almonds, sugar, and egg white shaped and
often colored to resemble fruits, vegetables, animals, etc.; the tradition of these decorative confections is very old, dating at least to the Middle Ages.
mesa (Mex.) A dough of dried cornmeal and water, used in making
tortillas and other preparations; masa harina is corn flour.
masala (Ind.) Spice or a blend of spices.
Mascarpone (It.) A soft cows' milk cheese made near Milan; the curd
made from the cream is beaten or whipped to make a thick, velvety
cheese with a rich sweet flavor; it is served with fruit and pastries
like cream, layered with Gorgonzola to make Torta di Gordenza,
and used in various other ways.
mask To cover food with sauce before serving.
masquer (Fr.) To mask.
massepain (Fr.) Marzipan.
Mastgeflugel (Ger.) Specially raised grain-fed poultry from the
Vierlande region southeast of Hamburg, of fine quality.
mater (Ind.) Peas; chick-peas.
matelote (Fr.) A fish stew (usually of freshwater fish) made with red
or white wine.
mattes herring High quality, lightly salted young "virgin" herring that have not yet spawned; very popular in Germany, the Netherlands,
and Scandinavia.
matsutake (Jap.) "Pine" mushrooms.
matzo, matzoh (Jew.) Flat unleavened bread eaten during Passover
to symbolize the Jews' hurried flight from Egypt, when there was no
time for the bread to rise; matzo meal is used in other dishes such
as knadlach and gefilte fish.
Maultaschen (Ger.) Ground veal, pork, and spinach wrapped in noodle
dough and served in gravy or broth for Maunday 'Thursday; from Swabia.
mayonnaise (Fr.) The classic French emulsion of egg yolks seasoned
with vinegar and mustard, with oil added very gradually to form a thick
sauce; there are many variations of this basic cold sauce.
mayonnaise verse Mayonnaise flavored and colored green with finely
minced herbs such as spinach, sorrel, watercress, parsley, chervil, and
tarragon; the herbs may be blanched first.
May wine A white-wine spring punch, lightly sweetened and
flavored with the herb woodruff and served chilled in a bowl with
strawberries; originally German.
meat birds Scallops or slices of meat filled with a savory stuffing, rolled up and secured (usually with string), browned in fat, and braised; also called olives. The French term is oiseaux sans fete, the Italian olivetti.
medaillon (Fr.) Small round "medallion" or scallop of meat, such as
beef, lamb, veal, or even a slice of foie gras.
medlar See loquat.
Medoc Frcnch wine-producing region north of Bordeaux bounded on
the east by the Gironde River and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean;
red wines so labeled come from the northern part, the Bas-Medoc,
and are good though not as fine as those from the Haut-Medoc in i
the southern part of the region.
Meerrettich ( Ger.. ) Horseradish.
meetha (Ind.)Sweet.
Mehlspeise (Ger.) A flour-based dish, especially popular in Bavaria-
dumplings, pancakes, and Strudel are examples; in Austrian dialect
this word means pudding.
mejiIllone (Sp.) Mussel.
mejorana (Sp.) Marjoram.
mela (It.) Apple.
(It.) Pomegranate.
melanger (Fr.) 'To mix; the word melange means mixture or blend.
melanzana (It.) Eggplant; the Grcek word is melidranes.
Melba toast Very thin slices of toast, named for Dame Nellie Melba, the great Australian soprano; peche Melba was also created for her by
melocoton (Sp.) Peach.
Melton Mowbray pie (Brit.) A pork pie encased in a pastry "coffin"
or crust, served cold; an old and traditional convenience food that
is easily transportable; named after the Leicestershire town of Melton
Mendocino A wine producing county in northern California, near Ukiah,
with especially good Zinfandels.
menestra (.Sp. ) Stew.
menthe ( Fr.. ) Mint; creme de menthe is a mint-flavored liqueur, either green or colorless.
menudo (Sp.) 'Tripe stew.
meringue Pastry made of stiffly beaten egg whites with sugar, shaped
variously, and baked in a slow oven. For meringue italienne see
Italian meringue.
merlan (Fr.) Whiting; the Italian word is merlango.
Merlot A red-wine grape variety, productive and early-ripening, that
yields soft, fruity, and graceful wines; Merlot combines well with the more astringent, later-maturing, and longer-lived Cabernet; widely planted in Bordeaux, California, parts of Switzerland, and northern Italy.
merluza (Sp.) Hake; the Italian word merluzzo means cod.
mero (Sp.) Rock bass.
mesclun (Fr. ) A Provencal mixture of young salad greens whose seeds are sown together, traditionally including wild chicory, mache, curly escarole, dandelion, rocket, and other tender lettuces; mesclun comes from the Nicoise word for mixture.
mesquite A scrub tree that grows wild in the southwestern U.S.. and Mexico, whose wood has recently become very fashionable for grilling food in the new American cuisine.
metate (Mex.) A sloping slab of porous volcanic rock standing on three legs and used to grind corn and spices in Mexican cooking; similar to a molcajete; the stone that is rolled over the surface for grinding is called a mano.
methi (Ind.)Fenugreek.
Methuselah An oversized bottle of Champagne, holding up to eight regular bottles, named after the biblical patriarch said to have lived ')69 years; spelled variously.
Mettwurst (Ger.) Smoked pork sausage with red skin and a coarse texture.
Meunier A fine grape variety, a subvariety of the Pinot Noir grape; planted extensively in Champagne, Alsace, and California.
meuniere, a la (Fr.) Lightly dredged with flour, sauteed in butter, and served with melted butter and sliced lemon; meuniere means "in the style of the miller's wife."
Meursault A village in the French Cote d'Or of Burgundy that produces a large quantity of distinguished white wine.
Mexican saffron See safflower.
mezzani (It.) Pasta in a long narrow tube.
microwave oven An oven that works on the principle of electromagnetic radiation; these high frequency waves penetrate the food being cooked to a depth of two inches and heat the water inside very quickly and efficiently but without browning the outside for this reason some microwave ovens include browning elements.
midollo (It.) Marrow.
mie (Fr.) The crumb or soft interior part of a loaf of bread; pain de mie is sandwich bread.
miel (Fr.) Honey; in Italian the word is miele
mignonette (Fr.) Coarsely ground pepper; originally, this
seasoning included various other spices, such as nutmeg, coriander,
cinnamon, ginger, clove, and red pepper. A mignonette is also a medaillon.
mi jiu (Chin.) Chinese rice wine, yellow in color.
mijoter (Fr.) To simmer.
Mikado (Fr.) Japanese style.
mikan (Jap. ) Tangerine.
milanaise, a la (Fr.) A classic garnish of julienne of tongue, ham,
mushrooms and truffles with spaghetti, tomato sauce, and Parmesan cheese.
mille-feuille (Fr.) See pate feuilletee; the Italian term is mille foglie or pasta sfoglia
millet A grain native to Africa and Asia. Millet has been cultivated in
dry, poor soil for millennia as an important high-protein staple, but
in the U.S. it is used mostly for animal fodder; it has no gluten.
milt Fish sperm, prepared like roe, and sometimes euphemistically called roe or spleen.
Milzwurst (Ger.) Veal sausage from Bavaria.
mimosa A garnish of finely chopped hard-boiled egg yolk, sometimes
including the white as well, that resembles the mimosa flower; also
a drink of Champagne and orange juice, usually served with brunch.
mincemeat A preserve of chopped mixed foodstuffs much changed over
the centuries. In fifteenth-century England it included small furred
and feathered game, meat, spices, and gradually more fruit; in present day England it consists mainly of fresh and dried fruits, nuts, spices,
rum or brandy, with suet being the only vestige of meat. Mince-
meat is cured and served in a piecrust for a traditional Christmas
minestra (It.) Soup or sometimes pasta served as the first course;
minestrina means a thinner soup, while minestrone (literally, a "big
soup," or meal in itself) means a thick vegetable soup in a meat broth
with pasta, Parmesan, and various vegetables, depending on the
region and season.
mint An aromatic herb, Mediterranean in origin, that includes basil,
marjoram, oregano, peppermint, rosemary, sage, savory, and thyme
in its large family. Common garden mint is spearmint or one of its
many close relatives; it has wide culinary uses from mint julep to
accompaniments for lamb (see mint sauce) to flavoring liqueurs,
but has never been favored by the French.
mint sauce (Brit.) Chopped and lightly sugared fresh mint in vinegar,
served with roast lamb; not to be confused with American commercial
mint jelly, which is apple jelly flavored with mint and nowadays
usually dyed bright green.
Mirabeau (Fr.) A garnish of anchovy fillets laid in a cries-cross pattern, pitted olives, tarragon and anchovy butter; for grilled meat.
mirabelle A small golden plum with a highly aromatic perfume, grown
almost exclusively in Europe; used in stews, preserves, tarts, and a
colorless eau de vie from Alsace.
mirchi (Ind.) Chili peppers.
mirepoix (Fr.) A mixture of diced vegetables-usually carrot, onion,
celery, and sometimes ham or pork belly-used to flavor sauces and
other preparations; see also brunoise.
mirin (Jap.) Rice wine, syrupy and sweet, used for cooking.
mirliton See chayote.
miroton (Fr.) A stew of meat with onions in brown sauce; the classic
sauce miroton is a demi-grace with sauteed onion rings, sometimes
flavored with tomato puree and mustard.
mise en place (Fr.) A term meaning that the preparation is ready up
to the point of cooking.
miso (Jap.) Fermented bean paste-a high-protein staple used exten-
sively and in many different forms; miso-shiru is a soup thickened
with red bean paste, often eaten for breakfast and sometimes with
other meals.
Mission-Haut-Brion, Chateau La An excellent first-growth wine of
Pes-sac, Graves; an immediate neighbor of Haut-Brion and an exceptional
red Bordeaux.
misto (It.) Mixed.
mithai (Ind.)Sweets.
(Ger.) Midday dinner, lunch; traditionally a substantial
meal, the main one of the day.
mixed grill (Brit.) Various grilled meats, such as lamb chops, kidneys, bacon, and sausages, served with grilled mushrooms, tomatoes, and tried potatoes; the French friture mixte and Italian fritto misto are equivalents, including foods appropriate to those countries.
Mocha originally, a very fine variety of coffee from the town of Mocha
in Yemen, often blended with Java; today this is more likely to be a
Mocha-style bean from Africa; mocha often means coffee-flavored and
Sometimes more loosely, coffee- and chocolate-flavored.
mochi-gome (Jap. ) Glutinous rice, used for special dishes such as red
rice and sweet rice cakes (mochi); mochiko is the flour made from it.
mochomos (Mex.) cooked meat, shredded and fried crisp.
mock turtle soup A clear soup made from a calf's head and often
garnished with calf brains, originally intended to spare the expense
and trouble of using real turtle. In Tenniel's illustration for Alice in
Wonderland, the mock turtle is a calf beneath a turtle's shell with
mock tears rolling down its cheeks.
mode, a la (Fr.) A large cut of braised beef with vegetables; in the United States, pie or other pastry served with ice cream.
moelle (Fr.) Beef marrow.
Mohn (Ger.) Poppy; Mohnbeugel, Mohnkipferl, and Mohnstrudel are popular poppy-seed pastries.
Mohre, Mohrrube (Ger.) Carrot.
Mohr im Hemd (Aus.) A chocolate pudding, from Austria, literally, "moor in a shirt"; Mohrenkopf is chocolate meringue with whipped cream.
Mojo (Island) Formerly the description of a voodoo potion, it became the name of a spicy sauce,originating from the Carribbean usually made of garlic, citrus, oil and herbs.
moka (Fr.) Mocha.
molasses The syrup remaining from sugarcane juice after sucrose crystallization, during the manufacture of sugar; the process is repeated three times, each yielding a lower grade of molasses with more impurities and darker color from the high heat; blackstrap is the third grade.
molcajete y tejolote (Mex.) Mexican mortar and pestle,, made of heavy, porous stone, and balanced on three legs; indispensable for grinding spices.
mole (Mex.) A mixture or sauce, from the Aztec word for chili sauce; mole poblano de guajolate is a festive Mexican specialty of wild turkey (or pork or chicken) in a rich dark subtle smooth sauce of powdered mulato, ancho, and pasilla chilies simmered with vegetables, seasoning, and a little chocolate.
Molinara A fine Italian red-wine grape variety, used for Valpolicello and Bardolino.
mollusk, mollusc A class of shellfish: an invertebrate with a soft, unsegmentcd body, with a single or double shell; includes scallops, clams, oysters, mussels, squid, octopus, whelks, and one land-dweller, the snail.
Monbazillac A soft, sweet, golden dessert wine, not unlike Sauternes. produced east of Bordeaux in the Dordogne..
Mondeuse A good French red-wine grape variety, extensively grown in the Savoie and [Upper Rhone regions and, to a lesser extent, in California.
monegasque, a la (Fr.) In the style of Monaco; a salad of nonats. tomatoes, and rice; also refers to numerous other preparations.
Monferrato A major Italian wine-growing region south of the Po Valley in the Piedmont; none of its many wines bears its name.
Mongolian hot pot (Chin.) See shuan yang rout
monkey bread A curious sweet bread, sometimes called bubble bread, made of separate clumps of dough piled and baked in a tube pan. Currants are sometimes added; no relation to the monkey '`bread', that is the fruit of the baobab tree.
monkfish A voracious and odd-looking fish whose tail contains firm white flesh similar in flavor to lobster; the meat can be prepared in numerous ways but should be cooked longer than that of most fish; also called goosefish, anglerfish, and lotte.
monopole (Fr.) A wine-label term meaning that the entire vineyard belongs to one proprietor.
monosodium glutamate (MSG) A type of salt long used in Oriental cooking as a taste intensifier and enhancer. MSG was chemically isolated in 1908 but scientists do not fully understand how it works; often found in Chinese restaurant food and instant and canned soups in excessive amounts.
Montasio (It.) A firm, whole-milk cows' cheese from northeastern Italy; this pale yellow cheese with a smooth rind and scattered holes is made in large wheels; it is cooked, pressed, salted, and cured up to two years; when young it makes a mild and nutty table cheese, and when aged it makes a brittle and pungent grating cheese-.
Mont Blanc (Fr.) A classic dessert of chestnut puree masked with creme Chantilly; the Italian version, Monte Bianco includes chocolate and rum.
monter (Fr.) To whip egg whites or cream to give volume; monter au beurre means to enrich a sauce with a little butter.
Monterey Jack A semihard cooked cows'' milk cheese first made in Monterey, California in 1892; a Cheddar-type of cheese, the whole milk version, aged for three to six weeks, is pale, creamy, and bland, while the skimmed-milk version, matured for at least six months, is harder and stronger.
Montilla A Spanish wine from the villages of Montilla and Moriles,, very similar to sherry and until recently sold as such, but now with its own appellation; Montilla, which is not fortified, makes an excellent aperitif or table wine, chilled.
Montmorency, a la (Fr.) With cherries.
montone (It.) Mutton.
Montpensier (Fr.) A classic garnish of green asparagus tips and sliced truffles, sometimes with artichoke hearts and Madeira sauce
Montrachet A celebrated vineyard in the Cote de Beaune of Burgundy straddling the communes of Puligny and Chassagne, whose dry white wine-made entirely from the Chardonnay grape-is one of the finest in the world; it lends its name to neighboring v vineyards as well. Montrachet is also the name of a fresh goats' milk cheese. mild and creamy, usually shaped in logs and sometimes covered with vegetable ash.
Montreui1 (Fr.) With peaches; also fish poached in white wine, served with large potato balls and shrimp sauce.
moon" dal (Ind.) Yellow mung beans.
moo shu (Chin.) Shredded pork stir-fried with scallions, cloud ears,
and egg, then rolled up in pancakes.
Morbier (Fr.) A hard, uncooked cows' milk cheese with a delicate
flavor, from the Franche-Comte region; it is made in large rounds
with a yellowish thin rind and an even paste marked by a traditional
horizontal streak of black soot.
morcilla negra (Sp.) Blood sausage made with pork, garlic, spices,
and pig's blood, the best coming from Asturias; morcilla blanca is
a sausage containing chicken, bacon, hard-boiled eggs, and parsley.
morcon (Phil.) Beef roulade filled with vegetables, sausages, and hard boiled eggs, braised and sliced into decorative rounds.
morel A wild fungus with a spongelike hollow cap, prized for its fine
nutty flavor; this mushroom appears in springtime but can be dried
successfully for other seasons; morels are never eaten raw.
morille (Fr.) Morel.
Mornay (Fr.) Bechamel sauce with butter, grated Parmesan and
Gruyere cheeses, possibly with egg yolks beaten in-a classic sauce.
mortadella A large Italian sausage of ground pork with white cubes of
fat, pistachio nuts, wine, and coriander; the best are from Bologna
but should not be confused with American baloney.
morue (Fr.) Salt cod; see also brandade.
moscada (Sp.) Nutmeg.
Moselle A river in western Germany on whose banks, between Trier
and Koblenz-where it flows into the Rhine-are many vineyards;
Moselle wine, in its characteristic green bottle, comes from the Riesling grape. Some of these wines, especially those from the Mittel-Mosel or central section, are exceptionally fine, distinguished by their delicacy, fragrance, and spiciness. The German spelling is Mosel.
Most (Ger.) Fruit juice; cider; must.
mostarda di frutta (It.) Various fruits preserved in a syrup flavored
with mustard; traditionally eaten with bread or cold meat, like chutney;
from Cremona in lombardy.
moulage (Fr.) Molding, as in molding a dessert; moule is mold.
moule (Fr. ) Mussel.
mountain oyster 'Testicles of a bull, pig, or lamb, usually breaded and tried; sometimes called prairie oyster or Rocky Mountain oyster; this American slang term is as much descriptive as euphemistic.
moussaka, mousaka A Balkan dish, varying from one region to another,
of vegetables layered with minced or ground meat, perhaps with a
white sauce or cheese; the Greek version, with eggplant, lamb, tomatoes,
and white sauce, is most familiar abroad.
mousse (Fr. ) A sweet or savory dish lightened with beaten egg whites
or cream; from the French word for froth or foam.
mousseline (Fr.) A dish or sauce with whipped cream or egg whites folded in; it often designates hollandaise or mayonnaise with whipped cream added. The term can also mean a "little mousse" in a small mold or in spoonfuls, especially for seafood preparations. See also mousse.
mousseux (Fr.) Sparkling or effervescent wine (literally "foaming"); does not include Champagne, which is considered a separate category.
moutarde de Meaux (Fr.) Mustard from the French town of Meaux made with partly crushed seeds, giving it a pleasantly grainy texture; Brillat-Savarin praised it.
mouton (Fr.) Mutton.
Mouton-Rothschild, Chateau An extraordinary Bordeaux wine from Pauillac in the Haut-Medoc, classified in 1855 as a second growth but unquestionably a great wine; it is large, robust, slow-developing but remarkably long-lived; from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.
moyashi (Jap.) Bean sprouts.
Mozzarella (It.) A white spun-curd cheese originally made from buffalo milk; the uncooked curd is kneaded into a smooth mass from which small pieces are cut off (mozzare in Italian) and shaped into single cheeses, which are salted in brine. Mozzarella ripens fast, has a fresh, slightly acidulated flavor, and is sometimes smoked; it is widely imitated with cows' milk for pizza and other uses.
MSG See monosodium glutamate.
muffin A round individual pastry, either flat or raised, often served with butter. An English muffin is a flat yeast bread baked on a griddle, while its American counterpart is a raised quick bread made of any kind of flour and often including nuts or fruit, baked in a deep mold in the oven.
mulard (Fr.) A crossbreed duck bred for its meat and sometimes for its liver; as a hybrid it cannot reproduce.
mulato (Mex.) A dried chili pepper, large, brown, and pungent.
mulberry A tree originating in China and cultivated for the silk worms that feed upon its fruit (white berries only); a relative of the fig, it was known in ancient Greece and Rome and is still most appreciated in the Middle East; its berries are white, deep red, or black and are formed like raspberries.
Mullerin Art (Ger.) "In the style of the miller's wife"-dredged in flour and fried in butter-the German version of a la meuniere.
mullet The name of several unrelated fish; the Mediterranean red mullet is the most distinguished, its liver and roe as prized as its flesh; the American striped and silver mullet, whose roe is used in taramasalata, are related to the European gray mullet.
mulligatawny (Inc. ) An anglicized soup of East Indian origin; chicken
or lamb poached in broth, flavored with curry and other spices, and served with rice, cream, lemon, and the diced meat.
mulling A process in which wine, ale, or cider is warmed, sweetened, and spiced.
Munchner (Ger.) Literally, from Munich; used to designate the dark malty beers popular there.
mung bean A variety of bean usually dried and used for bean sprouts.
Munster (Fr.) A pasteurized whole-milk cows' cheese first made by Benedictine monks in the Munster Valley of the Vosges mountains. The round cheese has a smooth orange rind and a pale yellow, fairly soft paste with cracks; its delicate salty flavor grows tangy with age. Alsatians eat their favorite cheese with rye or caraway bread, which complements it perfectly.
Murazzano (It.) A soft uncooked cheese from northwest Italy, made with a mixture of milks, mostly ewes'; the cylindrical cheese has no rind and a dense white paste that grows pale yellow with age.
mure (Fr.) Blackberry or mulberry.
murgh, murghi (Ind.) Chicken.
Murol (Fr.) A hard cows' milk cheese, uncooked but pressed, from the Auvergne; the wheel-shaped cheese has a pinkish rind with a hole in the center.
Muscadet A light, dry, fresh white wine from the lower Loire Valley; Muscadet tastes best drunk young and accompanies the seafood of neighboring Brittany exceptionally well.
Muscat A grape whose many varieties are used for wine, raisins, and table grapes; it ranges widely in color, yield, and quality, but all types have the characteristic musky flavor; planted widely with different; names, depending on the location.
mush Cornmeal porridge; an American version of polenta, which can be sliced and fried.
mushi (Jap. ) Steamed; mushimono means steamed food.
mushroom The fruiting body of a fungus whose spores, if given the proper conditions, sprout up virtually overnight. Gastronomes for millennia have prized edible mushrooms for their delicate flavor and meaty texture, but their cultivation has been understood only since the early eighteenth century. In addition to the common field mushrooms, many wild mushrooms (separately entered) can be gathered by those with the knowledge to distinguish between edible and poisonous species.
Musigny An extraordinary red Burgundy wine from the Cote de Nuits;: a Grand Cru, with great delicacy and refinement.
Muskatnuss (Ger.) Nutmeg, mace.
muskmelon A melon with netted skin, sometimes called nutmeg melon because of its resemblance to the spice, and orange or pale green flesh; the fruit that Americans call cantaloupe is really a muskmelon while the true cantaloupe (not cultivated in the U.S.) has rough, scaly or segmented-but never netted-skin. Muskmelons and cantaloupes have a separation layer in their stems, unlike winter melons, so that they cannot be harvested into frost.
muslin bag A bag filled with herbs, spices, or other flavorings and tied tightly, used for infusing liquids; it can be removed without leaving any solids.
mussel A bivalve mollusk with a blue black shell and a beard that
attaches to rock or other solid objects (and should be removed before
cooking); long popular in Europe in many preparations such as Billy
Bi and a la mariniere, mussels are gaining acceptance in the United
must Grape juice not yet fermented into wine.
mustard A plant related to cress, radish, horseradish, and turnip and
sharing their pungent taste. Mustard seeds were eaten by prehistoric
man, spread by the Romans, and today are consumed more than any
spice but pepper; they are dried, crushed, powdered, moistened, and
mixed with many seasonings. Mustard greens make a refreshing spring
vegetable, and mustard oil is important in Indian cooking. See alsoo
mutton The flesh of mature sheep (over one year in age), dark red in
color and rich in flavor; high quality mutton is hard to find and
generally unappreciated by Americans.
myrtille (Fr.) Bilberry, whortleberry, blueberry.
Mysost (Nor.) A hard uncooked cheese made from cows' milk whey
it is dark brown and sweet, usually firm and dense, and is made in
several varieties; see also Gjetost.
nabe (Jap.) Pot; nabemono means one pot communal cooking.
nacho (Mex.) A small tortilla chip topped with melted cheese and chilies.
Nackenheim A German wine producing town overlooking the Rhine south of Mainz; the fruity white wines, from the Riesling and Sylvaner grapes, are of high quality.
naganegi (Jap. ) Long onion, for which the leek can be substituted.
nage, a la (Ir. ) Cooked in a court bouillon of white wine, carrots, onions, shallots, and herbs; nage means swimming.
Nahe A German river flowing into the Rhine at Bingen; the Nahe Valley wines, from Riesling and Sylvaner grapes, produce a lot of good white wine.
nameko (Jap. ) A mushroom appreciated for its slippery texture; usually canned.
nam pla (Thai. ) Pungent salty fish sauce; nam prik is a hot variation with chilies, used as a dipping sauce.
Napa A valley northeast of San Francisco whose vineyards produce some of California's best wines, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Pinot Chardonnay, and Chenin Blanc.
napoleon A dessert of puff pastry strips spread with creme patissiere and stacked in layers, the top often iced; this pastry is not French.
napoletana, alla (It.) A meatless spaghetti sauce made with tomatoes, onion, garlic, and olive oil.
napolitain (Fr.) Originally a large ornamental cake-probably created by Careme, who delighted in such creations-of stiff almond pastry layers spread with different jams, piled high and elaborately decorated; nowadays it usually means a smaller-scale genoise filled with jam and spread with Italian meringue and more jam.
napolitaine, a la (Fr.) "In the style of Naples": veal scallops dipped in beaten eggs and bread crumbs mixed with grated Parmesan, fried, and garnished with spaghetti, tomato sauce, and Parmesan-a classic preparation.
napper (Fr.) To coat or mask with sauce.
naranja (Sp.) Orange.
nasi goreng (Indon.) Fried rice cooked with various spices and ingredients, usually including chilies, garlic, onions, and shrimp paste and sometimes including meat, chicken, or shellfish; popular throughout Malaysia and Indonesia; when noodles replace the rice it is called bami goreng (or bakmi goreng ).
nasturtium A plant whose hlossoms and young leaves are eaten in salads and whose buds and seeds are pickled like capers.
nasu (Jap. ) Eggplant.
natillas (Sp.) A soft runny custard, made from ewes' milk, sweetened and flavored with lemon and cinnamon; from the Basque country.
natural A term that is used by commercial producers to imply that no pesticides or additives have been used or that there has been no adulteration of any kind; however, the world has been given no specific definition by the Federal Trade Commission.
nature (Fr.) Plain, ungarnished; the Italian is naturale, the German natur; when used with wine the term means that nothing-in particular, sugar-has been added.
Naturschnitzel (Ger.) Unbreaded veal cutlet.
navarin (Fr. ) A mutton stew with small onions and potatoes; in spring, when the dish is called navarin a la printaniere, it is made with young vegetables such as carrots, turnips, new potatoes, and peas.
navarraise (Fr. ) Tomato sauce flavored with garlic and chopped herbs.
navel orange A nearly seedless orange variety with a characteristic
protuberance at the blossom end (hence its name), a thick skin, and sweet, flavorful flesh.
naves (Fr.) Turnip; the Spanish word is nabo, the Italian navone.
navy bean A variety of common bean, small and white, widely used in dried bean dishes such as cassoulet and Boston baked beans.
neapolitan ice cream Ice cream of various flavors, layered in a brick mold.
Nebbiolo A red-wine grape variety that produces some of Italy's finest wines; it grows best in northern Italy and yields robust, full-bodied wines.
Nebuchadnezzar A wine bottle, usually for Champagne, that holds twenty regular bottles; named for the superannuated biblical patriarch.
neck See chuck.
negi (Jap.) Leek, scallion, onion.
negresse, negresse en chemise (Fr.) Chocolate mousse topped with whipped or iced cream; sometimes called by the Spanish term negritas
negus A wine punch flavored with sugar, lemons, and spices; served warm.
Nesselrode A pudding of custard, whipped cream, and chestnut puree mixed with candied fruits, piled in a charlotte mold and frozen; apparently invented by Mouy, chef to Count Nesselrode, the nineteenth century diplomat and chancellor of Russia.
nest See yen cad.
nettle A prickly weed used in northern countries as a green similar to spinach; picked young and cooked, its sting disappears.
Neuchatel A well-known white wine produced on the northern shore of lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, from the Chasselas grape; it is pleasant and refreshing though unremarkable.
Neufchatel (Fr.) A soft uncooked cheese from the town of the same name in Normandy; made in many shapes from pasteurized cows' milk, either skimmed or whole and sometimes enriched with cream; eaten fresh when delicate or ripe when pungent.
new American cuisine A recent development in fashionable American restaurants, highly influenced by nouvelle cuisine; this style of cooking emphasizes American ingredients in imaginative new dishes usually made by classic French techniques, albeit lighter and fresher.
Newburg A thick cream sauce for lobster meat, enriched with egg yolks and flavored with sherry and cayenne pepper; named after a Captain Wenberg who had the sauce made for him at Delmonico's restaurant in New York.
New England boiled dinner A Yankee pot-au-feu of corned beef and salt pork, possibly a chicken, cabbage, potatoes, carrots, and other vegetables cooked together in one pot and usually served with mustard or horseradish.
New England clambake A traditional method of cooking seafood learned
from the Indians: a pit is dug in the beach, layered with hot rocks,
then covered with generous amounts of seaweed, clams, lobsters,
chicken, unhusked corn (silk removed), potatoes, etc.; the food cooks
by the heat of the steaming seaweed around it.
ni (Jap.) Braise, simmer; nimono is braised or simmered food.
nicoise, a la (Fr.) A classic preparation of tomatoes chopped and sauteed in olive oil with garlic, capers, sliced lemon, anchovies, and black olives; the popular salade (a la) nicoise contains, in addition to
many of these ingredients, a variety of vegetables (usually including
French beans and potatoes), seafood, especially tuna, and herbs.
Nieren (Ger.) Kidneys.
Nierstein An important wine-producing town in the German Rheinhessen,
with many good or fine white wines, mostly from the Riesling grape.
niku (Jap. ) Meat.
nimboo (Ind.) Lemon, lime.
ninjin (Jap. ) Carrot.
nispola (Sp.) Persimmon.
niu rou (Chin.) Beef.
nivernaise, a la (Fr.) Garnished with glazed carrots and turnips cut
into olive shapes, onions, braised lettuce, and boiled potatoes.
noble rot A mold (Botrytis cinerea) that develops on grapes in certain
regions, withering the grapes but concentrating the sugar and flavor;
grapes so affected produce very fine-and expensive-wine; the
French term is pourriture noble, the (German Edelfaule.
nocchette (It.) Small pasta "bow ties" for soup.
noce (It.) Nut, walnut; noce moscata means nutmeg; nocciola means
Nock (Ger.) Dumpling; in Austrian dialect, the word is Nockerl.
Noel, buche de See buche de Noel.
nogada (Mex.) Walnut sauce; traditionally served with poblano chilies
stuffed with shredded pork and garnished with pomegranate seeds-
a famous dish.
noisette (Fr. ) Hazelnut. The word also means a cut of meat from the
ribs, usually of lamb, trimmed, rolled, tied in a small round, and served in an individual portion. Noisette potatoes are shaped like hazelnuts and browned in butter; beurre noisette is brown butter sauce.
noix (Fr.) Nut, walnut; noix muscade is nutmeg.
Nokkelost (Nor.) A Norwegian cheese based on the Dutch Leyden
and similarly flavored with cumin and caraway.
nonat (Fr.) A very small Mediterranean fish, usually deep-fried or served as an hors d'oeuvre.
nonpareille (Fr.) Small pickled capers from Provence-a superior va-
riety ``without equal."
nopales (Mex.) The fleshy oval joints of the nopal cactus, eaten with
scrambled eggs or in salad; nopalitos are cactus leaves eaten in salad.
noques (Fr.) The Alsatian version of gnocchi; in Austria, noques are
made into a sweet, light dessert similar to snow eggs.
noquis (Sp.) Gnocchi.
nori (Jap. ) Thin black sheets of seaweed, used either toasted or untoasted for wrapping sushi, rice balls, and crackers, and for coating food to be deep-fried.
normande (Fr.) Fish veloute with mushrooms and oyster liquor,
thickened with egg yolks and cream, and enriched with butter-a
classic sauce; the garnish a la normande consists of oysters, mussels,
crayfish, goujonettes, shrimp, mushroom caps, and truffle slices with
fleurons, in sauce normande.
Normandy A northern French province renowned for its butter, cream,
cheese, apples, seafood, and salt-meadow sheep; cider is drunk here
instead of wine, and Calvados is the local brandy.
norvegienne (Fr.) A classic sauce of hard-boiled egg yolks mashed
and seasoned with vinegar and mustard and beaten with oil for a
mayonnaise like texture; omelette a la norvegienne is baked Alaska.
Norway lobster See Dublin Bay prawn.
nostrale, nostrano (It.) Native or homegrown.
nougat A confection of roasted nuts (usually almonds or walnuts) with
honey or syrup; there are many varieties. Nougatine, a vague term,
can mean almond brittle or nougat combined with chocolate.
nouilles (Fr.) Noodles.
nouvelle cuisine (Fr.) Literally "new cooking," this culinary movement features fresher, lighter food often in innovative combinations, usually served in small portions with artful and striking presentations, but otherwise cooked primarily by classic French techniques.
nova (Jew. ) (told-smoked salmon, originally from Nova Scotia and now
probably, hut not necessarily, from the Pacific; traditionally eaten like lox with cream cheese and bagels.
Nudeln (Ger.) Noodles.
nuez (Sp.) Nut, walnut.
Nuits-Saint-Georges A town in the (tote de Nuits whose vineyards
produce excellent red Burgundies.
nuoc mam (Vietnam ) Fermented fish sauce, salty and pungent, related
to nam pla and patis.
Nuss (Ger.) Nut, walnut.
nutmeg The oval seed of the tropical nutmeg tree, native to the Moluccas, which is dried, ground, and used to flavor a wide variety of sweet and savory dishes. Connecticut is known as the Nutmeg State because Yankee peddlers sold wooden "nutmegs" to unsuspecting customers.
nymphes a l'aurore (Fr.) Frog legs poached in white wine and served
oats, rolled Hulled oats ground into a meal, then steamed to gelatinize some of their starch (thus reducing spoilage), rolled into flakes, and dried; rolled oats are quicker to prepare as oatmeal than other kinds of oats, even if they have lost much of their texture.
Obst (Ger.) Fruit; Obsttorte is an open mixed fruit tart, glazed, and perhaps garnished with almonds, whipped cream, or meringue; Obstsuppe nach Hamburger Art is a soup of pureed fruits, from Hamburg.
oca (It.) Goose.
ocha (Jap.) Green tea.
Octopus A marine mollusk whose flavorful hut tough meat is appreciated mainly by Oriental and Mediterranean cultures, often smoked, marinated, or stewed.
oeil d'anchois (Fr.) Literally "eve of anchovy," this hors d'oeuvre is a raw egg yolk surrounded by anchovies and chopped onions.
Oenology The science of wine-making.
Oeuf (Fr.) Egg; o. brouilles means scrambled eggs; o. en cocotte means poached in a casserole; o. a la coque means soft-boiled; o. curs means hard-boiled; o. en gelee means poached and chilled in aspic; o. mollets means soft-boiled; o. au plat or sur le plat means fried or baked; o. poches means poached; o. poches benedictine means poached and served on a creamed salt-cod base (not eggs Benedict); o. a la poele means fried.
oeufs a la neige See snow eggs.
Offal So-called variety meats, consisting of organs or trimmings that the butcher removes from the skeletal meat. Offal includes brains, heart, sweetbreads, liver, kidneys, lungs, pancreas, spleen, tripe, tongue, head meat, tail, blood, skin, feet, horns, and intestines. Offal can also mean inedible waste or carrion.
oie (Fr.) Goose; oison is a gosling.
oignon (Fr.) Onion; oignon cloute is an onion studded with cloves.
oiseau (Fr.) Bird.
oiseaux sans tete (Fr.) Meat birds; a meat scallop stuffed, rolled up, and cooked.
okra A tropical plant of the mallow family, native to Africa or Asia and brought to the southern U.S. with the slave trade; its unripe seed pod, star-shaped in cross section, is used as a vegetable and a thickener for soups and gumbos because of its mucilaginous texture.
Ol (Ger.) Oil.
ol, ol (Den., Nor., Swed.) Beer.
oleo See margarine.
olio (It.) Oil; in Italy, olio always means olive oil-olio d'oliva
olives, meat See meat birds.
Olivet (Fr.) A whole- or partially skimmed-milk cows' cheese similar to Camembert, from Orleans; it is eaten very fresh or matured for a month, when it develops a delicate blue rind and is called Olivet Bleu.
olivette di vitello (It.) Veal scallops filled with a savory stuffing, rolled up, and braised; veal birds.
olla podrida (Sp.) A stew, literally "rotten pot," made from many different meats (mainly pork) and vegetables, including cabbage, chickpeas, and tomatoes; similar to the cocido of Madrid; olla means stewpot and lends its name to other hearty dishes.
Oloroso (Sp.) A type of Spanish sherry matured in soleras like fino but without flor yeast; its color is dark-deep gold to amber-its alcoholic content higher than fino, and it has a rich flavor and intense; characteristic bouquet; olorosos range from nearly dry to very sweet.
Omelette (Fr.) Omelet: eggs beaten and cooked in butter in a special flat pan until set, often filled or flavored with a wide variety of other ingredients.
oolong A partially fermented, amber-colored tea, mostly from Taiwan- a cross between black fermented tea and green unfermented tea.
Oporto A city in Portugal near the mouth of the Douro River; the fortified wine port, whose name comes from that of the city, must by law be shipped from Oporto or the town across the river.
oppenheim A town in the German Rheinhessen whose many vineyards produce good white wines (although not so distinguished as those of its northern neighbor, Nierstein).
orange, sauce (Fr.) Demi-glace flavored with orange and perhaps lemon juice and julienne of orange zest.
orange flower water Liquid distilled during the extraction of essential oil from bitter orange blossoms and used as a flavoring; before vanilla was discovered it was the principal flavoring extract and remains so in the Middle East.
orange pekoe A superior grade of black tea from India or Ceylon with leaves slightly larger than pekoe; the name no longer refers to the flavor of the tea, but rather to leaf size.
orecchiette (It.) Egg less pasta in the shape of little ears; originally from Apulia, in Italy's heel, and usually made commercially; the traditional sauce for orecchiette is broccoli with anchovies and cheese.
oregano Wild marjoram, an herb especially popular in Italian cooking as well as Greek and Middle Eastern cooking; oregano is very similar to marjoram but more pungent; the Italian word is origano, the
French origan.
Oregon grapes See barberry.
organic Refers to produce grown without artificial or chemical fertilizers or pesticides and therefore favored by the health movement.
Orgeat (Fr.) A syrup or drink originally made from barley and later from almonds, flavored with orange flower water.
Orientale, a 1' (Fr.) Dishes seasoned with saffron or curry, sometimes in a garnish of tomatoes stuffed with rice.
Original-Abfullung (Ger.) Chateau-bottled.
Orloff, veal See veal Orloff.
ormer See abalone.
ortolan (Fr.) A small bird, the European bunting, prized for its flavor; though once prolific in southern France, it is now nearly extinct; it is plucked and often boned but not drawn, and its entrails are considered delicious.
Orvieto A town in Umbria in central Italy whose white wine of the same name is light, pleasant, and popular.
orzo (It.) Rice-shaped pasta; the word actually means barley.
Oscar' veal See veal Oscar.
Oseille (Fr.) Sorrel.
osso buco, ossobuco alla milanese (It.) Veal shanks or shin bones ( literally ``bone with a hole" ) slowly braised with onions, garlic, carrots, celery, tomatoes, stock, and white wine, and traditionally garnished with gremolada before serving; the morsels of marrow are removed with a special implement. In Milan, risotto accompanies the oss bus, as it is called in local dialect. The plural form is ossi buchi.
ost (Scand. ) Cheese.
ostra (Sp.) Oyster; ostion is another kind of oyster, eaten cooked.
ostrica (It.) Oyster.
oursin (Fr.) Sea urchin.
ouzo (Gr.) A sweet anise-flavored liqueur from Greece.
ovos moles (Port.) Egg yolks and sugar mixed together and used as a sauce or filling; in Aveiro, the mixture is molded into fanciful shapes, cooked in rice water, and eaten sprinkled with cinnamon.
Oxford and Cambridge pudding (Brit.) Apricot tart masked with meringue.
Oxford sauce (Brit.) Virtually the same as Cumberland sauce.
Oxidation When applied to wine, the process of exposing the wine (usually white) to the air. This generally causes it to darken, as well as robbing it of its freshness.
oxtail Tail of beef, excellent for stews and soups because of the gelatin rendered from the high proportion of bones; ox simply means steer or beef.
oyster A bivalve marine mollusk prized since ancient times and cultivated since the Romans; eaten raw or cooked (only until its edges curl) in preparations as various as Hangtown fry, angels on horseback, and a la normande; Marennes and Belon (French), Colchester and Whitstable (English), and Blue Point and Olympia (American) are choice varieties.
Ouster mushroom An Oriental mushroom that grows both wild and cultivated and is available fresh, dried, and canned; the clusters, with gray oval caps and white stems, are sold in plastic pouches; the taste is peppery when raw, mild when cooked.
oyster plant See salsify.
oyster sauce (Chin.) See li jiang.
oysters Rockefeller Oysters on the half shell, resting on a bed of rock salt, each topped with a spoonful of pureed seasoned spinach, quickly browned; originally from Antoine's in New Orleans and named for John 1). Rockefcller; apparently first made with watercress rather than spinach.
paan (Ind.) Betel leaves, sometimes stuffed with spices and nuts, and
used as a digestive.
pachadi (Ind.) Vegetables and yogurt with mustard seeds.
paella (Sp.) A dish of rice cooked with a variety of meats and fish
(usually chorizos, chicken, rabbit, and shellfish) and an assortment
of vegetables, including garlic, onions, peas, and tomatoes, seasoned
with saffron, and served in the pan in which it is traditionally made;
the exact ingredients vary widely according to region, season, and
pagello (It.) Red snapper.
paglia e fieno (It.) "Straw and hay" fettucine, the yellow and green
colors coming from egg and spinach pasta dough; usually served in
a cream sauce with ham or sausage, peas, and perhaps mushrooms.
paillarde de veau (Fr.) Grilled veal scallop.
paillettes (Fr.) Pastry straws.
pain (Fr.) Bread, loaf; pain mollet is soft bread; pain grille is toast; petit pain is a roll; pain perdu is French toast as made in France,usually sweetened and spiced with cinnamon, so-called because it is made with stale bread; pain de mie is sandwich bread; pain de Genes
is Genoa cake, a rich almond pound cake.
pain a l'anglaise (Fr.) See bread sauce.
palacsinta (Hung.) Crepe; the word in Austrian dialect is Palatschinke
palak (Ind.)Spinach.
palate knife A flexible, wide-bladed knife without a sharp edge; used
for spreading butter, icing, sandwich fillings, and other mixtures.
Palatinate See Rheinpfalz.
palm A large family of trees and shrubs, usually tropical, many of whose parts are edible: dates are its fruit, coconut its seed or nut, palm hearts its new buds or shoots, sago a starch from its trunk, and, in addition, palm oil and wine.
palmier (Fr.) A pastry made from strips of pate feuilletee sprinkled
with sugar, folded, sliced, and baked, which forms a palm-leaf shape
as the pastry puffs out.
paloise (Fr.) Classic bearnaise sauce but with mint in place of tarragon.
palombe (Fr.) Wild pigeon or dove; in Spanish palombacco means
squab or young pigeon.
palourde (Fr.) Clam.
pamplemousse (Fr. ) Grapefruit.
panache (Fr.) Mixed or multicolored; used to describe salad, fruit, or
ice cream.
panade (Fr.) A peasant soup of water, stock, or milk thickened with
bread; also a thick paste made with flour (see roux), bread crumbs,
or other starch, possibly thickened with eggs, and used to bind fish
and meat mousses and force meats; from the Spanish word for bread,
panais (Fr.) Parsnip.
panato (It.) Fried in bread crumbs.
pancake A thin batter cake cooked on a griddle or pan and appearing
in almost every cuisine the world over. See also crepe.
pancetta (It.) Italian bacon that is rolled into a solid round.
pancit (Phil.) Pasta in the form of noodles, often stir-fried with chopped meats, shrimp, and vegetables, or in the form of dough-wrappers
stuffed like wontons.
pan de Spagna (It.) Sponge cake, often soaked in liqueur and filled
with jam or cream.
pandorato (It.) Bread dipped in an egg and milk batter and deep-fried; sometimes with a savory stuffing.
pandowdy A early American dessert, probably from New England, of
sliced apples mixed with cider, brown sugar or molasses, spices, and
butter, covered with biscuit dough, and baked.
pan-dressed Refers to a whole fish that has been scaled and gutted,
with head and fins removed; usually for sauteing or deep-frying.
pane (It.) Bread; panino is a roll or biscuit; in French pane means
bread crumbed; see also parade, panure, and pain.
panetiere (Fr.) A cupboard with open lattice work for storing bread;
it is either suspended from the ceiling to keep away pests or set on
a sideboard.
panettone (It.) A light yeast cake confining sultana raisins and candied lemon peel, baked in a cylindrical shape and eaten for breakfast; originally from Milan, panettone is traditional for Christmas.
panforte (It.) Fruit cake.
pan-fry To saute: to cook in a skillet in a small amount of fat, as opposed to deep-frying.
panna (It.) Cream; panna montata is whipped cream.
pannequet (Fr.) Small pancake or crepe filled with a sweet or savory
mixture and folded in quarters.
Pannerone (It.) An uncooked whole-milk cows' cheese from Lombardy,
usually unsalted; the cheese is pale straw-colored with many holes,
delicate and creamy in taste with a slight tang; it matures quickly;
also called White Gorgonzola and Gorgonzola Dolce, rather
Pannhas (Ger.) A kind of mush made from buckwheat Hour cooked
in broth left over from cooking sausages; this Westphalian specialty,
similar to Pennsylvania German scrapple, is a traditional part of the
fall pig slaughter.
panucho (Mex.) A small tortilla puffed up, the pocket filled with a
savory stuffing, then fried until crisp.
panure (Fr.) Golden bread crumb crust.
panzanella (It.) A salad of vegetables and anchovies with stale bread
soaked in water and squeezed dry, or perhaps fried in olive oil; from
panzarotti (It.) Pastry crescents stuffed with cheese and deep-fried.
papa (Mex.) Potato; also called patata
papa dzules (Mex.) Literally "food for the lords," which the Mayans
supposedly gave the Spaniards. This specialty from the Yucatan consists
of tortillas filled with hard-boiled egg yolk, tomato sauce, pumpkin
seed sauce, and green pumpkin seed oil.
papain An enzyme derived from the papaya and used, diluted in sugar
and salt, as a meat tenderizer. South American Indians have for centuries wrapped fresh papaya leaves around meat for the same purpose.
papaw, pawpaw See papaya.
papaya A tall tropical plant native to America; its large pear-shaped fruit has a thin skin that turns yellow when ripe, a smooth yellow or
orange flesh, and many black seeds resembling peppercorns; the unripe papaya can be cooked as a vegetable like squash; the sweet ripe fruit is eaten in many ways, like melon, and even the leaves can be boiled like spinach; see also papain.
papillon (Fr.) A butterfly shaped pastry cookie made from feuilletage.
papillote (Fr.) A paper frill used to garnish the end of the rib bone on chops and crown rib roasts; en papillote means an individual portion of fish, poultry, or meat that is wrapped in paper (usually parchment) with seasonings and liquid to moisten it, cooked in the oven, and served while still in the puffed-up paper, slit at table.
papos de anjo (Port.) literally "angel's breasts"; small yellow egg cakes served with syrup.
pappardelle (It.) Long flat egg noodles, 5/8 inch broad, cut with a crimped edge; they are the traditional accompaniment to hare cooked in a rich wine sauce; from Tuscany.
paprika A condiment made from sweet red pepper, dried and powdered; widely used in Hungarian cooking and essential to gulyas; different types of paprika vary in strength.
paprikas csirke (Hung.) Chicken braised with onions and garlic, with plenty of paprika and sour cream; paprikas, a favorite Hungarian dish, is also made with meat and fish.
paquette (Fr.) Fully developed lobster roe about to be laid, turned from bright orange to dark greenish black-considered a great delicacy; paquette also means the female lobster carrying such roe.
paratha (Ind.) Flaky whole-wheat bread fried on a griddle.
parboil See blanch.
pareve (Jew. ) Food containing no meat or milk and therefore, by kosher law, suitable to be eaten with either.
parfait (Ir.) A mousse like dessert, originally a coffee cream, but now any fruit,, nut, or flavored syrup into which whipped cream is folded, then chilled or frozen; in the United States a parfait is served in a tall narrow glass filled with ice cream, layered with sauce, with whipped cream on top.
Paris-Brest (Fr.) A pastry ring of pate a choux topped with sliced almonds and filled with creme praline (see praline ) or creme Chantilly and fresh strawberries.
parisienne, pommes a la ( Ir. ) Potatoes cut into small ovals and sauteed in butter; there are various other parisienne preparations, including a white-wine reduction sauce with shallots.
Parker House roll A yeast-bread roll folded into two halves before baking, named for the Parker House hotel in Boston, where the roll was first created in the nineteenth century.
Parmentier, Antoine-Augustin ( 1737 - 1813) A French pharmacist and agronomist who, when fed potatoes as a prisoner of war, realized their potential importance. Parmentier spent his life promoting the scorned tuber, eventually persuading Louis XVI to serve it at court. Parmentier's name is attached to many potato dishes.
Parmesan See Parmigiano Reggiano.
parmesane, a la (Fr.) With grated Parmesan cheese; See Parmigiano
Parmigiano Reggiano (It.) A cooked, pressed, partially-skimmed cows'
milk cheese shaped in large squat cylinders; protected by law, this
very old and famous grana cheese comes from designated areas in
northern Italy. Its rind is smooth and golden, its paste pale straw colored, dense, and grainy, with tiny holes radiating from the center;
sweet, mellow, and fragrant, it is eaten young as a table cheese or
very old and sharp as a grating cheese.
parrilla (Sp.) Grill; parrillada di pescado is mixed seafood grill with lemon.
parsley An herb known to the ancient Greeks and Romans for its medicinal properties but now used entirely for culinary purposes; it grows in several varieties, among them the curly-leaf, most popular in the U.S..,and the more pungent flat-leaf, popular in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean where it originated.
parson's nose See pope's nose.
partridge A fall game bird with delicate flesh, cooked in various ways
depending largely on age; a single bird serves one.
pasilla (Mex.) A long, thin, dark brown chili pepper, very hot and
about 6 inches long.
paskha (Russ.) A traditional cake for Russian orthodox Easter (paskha means Easter) made of cream cheese, dried fruits and nuts, and shaped in a high four-sided pyramid marked with the letters XB for "Christ is Risen"; usually served with kulich.
passata (It.) Puree.
passatelli in brodo (It.) Parmesan, eggs, and bread crumbs mixed to
a paste and pressed through a tool to form strands that are cooked
and served in meat broth; from Romagna.
passer ( Fr.. ) 'To strain through a sieve or tammy cloth.
passion fruit A climbing vine or shrub, native to Brazil, whose unusual blossom is considered symbolic of Christ's passion; the egg sized fruit turns deep purple with ripeness; its sweet yellow flesh is eaten raw with the seeds or squeezed and bottled for juice.
pasta (It.) Dough or paste, as well as the whole family of noodles;
pasta all'uovo means egg pasta; p. ascuitta means "dry" or plain
pasta as opposed to p. in brodo, which is pasta cocked in soup;
p. frolla means short pastry; p. sfoglia means puff pastry.
pasta asciutta (It.) "Dry" pasta; that is, pasta not served in a broth; pasta asciutta can be served stuffed or in a sauce.
pasta e fagioli (It.) A robust soup of pasta, white beans (some of
which are pureed to thicken it), and salt pork.
pastel (Sp.) Pie, cake, pastry, pate; a pasteleria is a pastry shop.
pasteque (Fr.) Watermelon.
pasteurization The process of heating food high and long enough to
kill microorganisms and prevent or slow down fermentation; used
especially for milk; named after the French chemist Louis Pasteur
( 1822-95).
pasticcio (It.) A pie, either savory or sweet, but often of layered pasta with a savory filling; a pasticceria is a piece of pastry or pastry shop.
pastillage (Fr.) A mixture of sugar, water, and gum tragacanth that
forms a paste that can be molded into fantastic shapes; though little used today, in centuries past it was used extensively for elaborate table ornamentation; Careme excelled in architectural pastillage.
pastina (It.) Small pasta for soup.
pastis (Fr.) An anise-flavored liqueur.
pastitsio (Gr. ) Macaroni baked in a dish with ground meat, onion,
tomato sauce, and cheese.
pastrami (Jew. ) Beef, usually shoulder, first pickled in spices and then smoked; of Rumanian origin and now associated with Jewish cooking.
pastry bag A cone of paper or cloth with an open tip, sometimes fitted with a specially cut tip; soft smooth foods, such as whipped cream, icing, pureed potatoes, and pate a choux, are forced through it to make even and decorative shapes.
pastry blender A simple kitchen tool-parallel stiff metal wires on a handle-for cutting fat into flour.
pastry cream See creme patissiere.
pasty See Cornish pasty.
patata (It. and Sp. ) Potato; patate fritte are fried potatoes; p. Iesse are boiled potatoes; p. stacciate are mashed potatoes.
patate (Fr.) Sweet potato.
pate (Fr.) Pastry, paste, pasta, dough, or batter; the word is often confused with pate.
pate (Fr.) A rich meat, poultry, game, seafood, or vegetable mixture or spread, strictly speaking cooked in pastry (pate en croute rather than in an earthenware dish (pate en terrine); pate de foie gras, smooth, rich, and well seasoned, is a typical example; pate de compagne has a coarse, crumbly texture. Pate also means pastry, pie, pasty, or patty, but should not be confused with pate.
pate a choux (Fr. ) Cream puff pastry; a simple paste made by stirring
flour into boiling water and butter; eggs are then mixed in; upon
cooking, the eggs puff up the dough, making a cavity, so the inside
of the pastry is generally filled with flavored cream, as in eclairs,
profiteroles, etc.; spelled both pate a chou and choux..
pate a croissant Croissant pastry dough.
pate a foncer See forcer.
pate brisee (Fr.) Pie dough, short pastry.
pate d'amandes (Fr.) Almond paste, marzipan.
pate feuilletee (Fr.) Flaky or puff pastry; it is made by enclosing butter within the detrempe or elastic dough and then folding and turning it many times to produce mille feuille, a "thousand leaves" or thin layers; during baking the steam from the melted butter pushes the layers up to make the delicate puff of pastry.
pate levee (Fr.) Raised or leavened dough.
pate sucree (Fr.) Sweet pastry for pie dough and pastry shells, very high in fat (butter for best flavor) and low in moisture to form a crumbly base that will not become soggy when filled.
patis (Phil.) Fermented fish sauce, salty and pungent.
patissier (Fr.) A pastry chef or cook; a patisserie is a piece of pastry or a pastry shop.
patissiere, creme See creme patissiere.
pato, pate (Sp.) Duck.
paton (Fr.) One recipe or "pad" of pate feuilletee, of optimal size
for handling.
patty pan A variety of round summer squash with a scalloped edge,
usually white, sometimes yellow.
Pauillac A wine-producing town in the Haut-Medoc of Bordeaux, where
some of the greatest vineyards lie, including Chateaux Lafite, Latour, and Mouton-Rothschild; wines labeled simply Pauillac, while notamong their class, can be very fine indeed.
paupiette (Fr.) A thin slice or scallop of meat filled with savory stuffing, rolled up, and braised; see also meat birds or olivette and scallop.
pave (Fr.) A dish such as a savory mousse or pate chilled in a square mold and garnished; a square cake, often sponge, spread with buttercream and garnished; the name means paving stone and designates a square or rectangular shape.
pavo (Sp.) Turkey.
payasam (Ind.) A pudding of mung beans, peas, and coconut milk.
paysanne, a la (Fr. ) "Peasant style": with vegetables-most often
carrots, onions, and potatoes-and diced bacon.
peanut Not a true nut but the seed of a leguminous hush indigenous
to South America and brought to North America as a result of the
slave trade; highly nutritious, peanuts are a staple in Africa and an important crop in India and China.
pearl barley Hulled and polished barley, small and round like pearls, usually eaten in soups or like rice.
pecan The nut of a tall tree native to the Mississippi Valley and a member (with the walnut) of the hickory family; an important dessert nut in the U.S. but uncommon elsewhere; the name is of American Indian origin.
peche Melba (Fr.) Skinned peaches poached in vanilla-flavored syrup, served on vanilla ice cream with raspberry puree; created by
Escoffier for Dame Nellie Melba. the great Australian coloratura soprano.
pechuga de polio (Sp.) Chicken breast.
Pecorino Romano (It.) A cooked and pressed whole-milk ewes' cheese,
originally made outside Rome but now made mostly in Sardinia. This
ancient grana cheese is round, white or very pale straw-yellow, and
dense, with a yellow brown rind. Aged at least eight months, its flavor is sharp, salty, and intense. There are other types of pecorino (from pecora, meaning ewe), but this is the most famous and finest.
Pecorino Siciliano (It.) A hard uncooked cheese made from whole
ewes' milk, with a flavor made more pungent by the addition of
peppercorns; a grana cheese, it is often used for grating.
pectin A jellylike substance found in certain fruits-especially apples, currants, quinces, and citrus-and other plants. Pectin causes fruit to set when it is cooked for a long time with sugar and acid in jelly making.
Pedro Ximenez A Spanish grape variety, said to be (but probably not) the Riesling grape brought from the Rhine Valley; sherry, Montilla, and Malaga wines are made from it.
Peking duck See Bei jing kao ye.
pekoe A superior grade of black tea from India and Ceylon whose leaves are slightly smaller than that of orange pekoe and that brews dark, though not necessarily strong.
Pellkartoffeln (Ger.) Potatoes boiled in their skins.
pemmican Preserved meat, often buffalo or venison, dried, pounded,
mixed with melted fat and sometimes berries, and pressed into cakes; used by the American Indians and early settlers on expeditions as a high-energy convenience food.
penne (It.) Quill-shaped pasta; that is, tubes cut on the diagonal.
pepe nero (It.) Black pepper; red pepper is pepe rosso.
peperonata (It.) Sweet peppers, tomatoes, onions, and garlic cooked
in olive oil and served cold; an Italian piperade.
peperoncino (It.) A hot red chili pepper, fresh or dried.
peperoni (It.) Green or red sweet bell peppers; also an Italian sausage of pork and beef highly seasoned with hot red peppers.
pepino (Sp.) Cucumber.
pepita (Sp.) Fruit seed; in Mexican cooking this means pumpkin seed.
pepitoria, en (Sp.) A sauce, usually for chicken, of almonds, garlic, herbs, saffron, and wine; probably of Arab origin.
pepper (black) The fruit of a vine native to India, which has been
fermented and dried; white pepper. used in pale foods for aesthetic
reasons only, has a milder taste because the black outer skin has been
removed. This type of pepper is not related to the Capsicum family,
to which cayenne, paprika, chili, and sweet red and green bell
peppers belong.
pepper (chili or red) See chili.
pepper (sweet bell) A mild member of the fiery Capsicum family native
to tropical America; the unripe green fruits turn red, yellow, and
deep purple when mature.
pepperpot A soup or stew made from tripe and highly seasoned,
originally from Philadelphia and probably derived from the German Pfeffer-pothast. The West Indian version of pepperpot contains cassareep
(cassava juice), meat, and seafood, as well as vegetables.
pera (It. and Sp.) Pear.
perch The name given to various fresh- and saltwater fish, many of them
perdrix (Fr.) Partridge; perdreau is a young partridge.
peregrinos (Sp.) Scallops.
Perigord, perigourdine (Fr.) A demi-grace sauce with truffle
essence and chopped truffles; a la perigourdine means garnished with
truffles; for which Perigord is famous-and sometimes foie gras.
Perilla (Sp.) A cows' milk cheese from Spain similar to Tetilla; firm
in texture, mild in flavor.
periwinkle A small sea snail popular among the French and British
seashores but largely ignored on the American Atlantic coast.
perlant (Fr.) A wine that is slightly and naturally sparkling but not
deliberately vinified so.
Perlwein (Ger.) A wine that is slightly sparkling and intentionally
vinified so.
pernice (It.) Partridge; the Spanish word is perdiz.
Pernod (Fr.) An anise-flavored liqueur.
perry Pear cider.
persil (Fr.) Parsley; persillade is chopped parsely, perhaps mixed
with chopped garlic-added to a dish before serving; persille means
sprinkled with parsley and also designates top-quality beef marbled
with fat.
persimmon The fruit of a tree native to the U.S. and China, though the
Chinese varieties are, through cultivation, sweeter and larger; the
deep orange fruit ripens in mid to late fall but until then it is unpleasantly astringent; known as kaki to the rest of the world, we call it by its American Indian name.
pesca (It.) Peach (the plural is pesche); pesca noce is nectarine.
pescado (Sp.) Fish; pescado a la sal is whole fish baked in rock salt;
pescadilla is a small fish.
pesce (It.) Fish; p. persico is perch; p. spada is swordfish; p. San Pietro is John Dory.
pesto (It.) A sauce from Genoa of crushed basil, garlic, pine nuts, and
Parmesan or Pecorino in olive oil; it is a robust and addictive sauce
for minestrone and pasta (which in Italy is invariably trenette).
Petersilie (Ger.) Parsley.
petillant (Fr.) Effervescent, slightly sparkling wine; the French equivalent of frizzante (Italian) and Perlwein (German) and deliberately vinified so (unlike perlant).
petite marmite (Fr. ) A clear consomme served from the earthenware
marmite in which it is cooked; lean meat, marrow bones, a whole
chicken, and vegetables flavor the broth, which is served with croutes
spread with marrow or sprinkled with grated cheese.
petit four (Fr.) A very small cake or cookie, often elaborately garnished; also a sweetmeat served at the end of a dinner (literally, "little oven").
petit pain See pain.
petit sale (Fr.) See sale.
Petit-Suisse (Fr.) A pasteurized cows' milk cheese, sometimes enriched
with cream, made into a fresh, mild cheese shaped in small cylinders;
it was invented by a Swiss cowherd and a farmer's wife in France in
the nineteenth century.
Petit Syrah The name used in California for the Syrah grape.
petrissage (Fr.) Kneading the dough.
petto (It.) Breast, chest, brisket; petti di polio are chicken breasts.
pez espada (Sp.) Swordfish.
pezzo (It.) Piece, chunk.
Pfannkuchen (Ger.) Pancake.
Pfeffer (Ger.) Pepper.
Pfefferkuchen ((,er.) A spice cake, similar to gingerbread, originally
from Nuremberg; a traditional C.hristmas dessert.
Pfefferpothast ((,er. ) A stew of beef ribs and onions in gravy, liberally seasoned with pepper ancJ lemon; from Westphalia.
Pfifferling (Ger.) Chanterelle.
Pfirsich (Ger.) I'each.
Pflaume (Ger.) Plum..
pheasant A fall game bird with colorful plumage whose flesh, properly
hung, is relished at the table; though a hit smaller, hen pheasants are
considered slightly plumper and more succulent than cocks; plenty
of moisture must be provided to prevent the meat from drying out
during cooking.
phool gobhi (Ind.) cauliflower.
phyllo (Gr.) Very thin sheets of dough, made from flour and water'
layered, and filled with savory or sweet foods; the word means "leaf,"
and phyllo is, in fact, similar to the French mille-feuille.
piacere, a (It.) Cooked "to please"; as you like it.
piaz (Ind.)Onion.
pib, pibil (Mex.) A pit used in the Yucatan for barbecuing that allows
the meat to smoke partially while cooking.
picada (Mex.) See sope.
picadilla (Sp.) Ground, minced, or shredded meat.
piccalilli (Ind.) A vegetable pickle from East India prepared with vinegar, mustard, and other spices.
piccante (It.) Piquant, spicy, sharp; the Spanish word picante emphasizes hot, spicy flavor.
piccata (It.) Veal scallop.
pichon (Sp.) A squab bred for the table.
pickerel See pike and walleye.
Pickert (Ger.) Peasant bread of potato or wheat flour, from Westphalia.
Picon See Cabrales.
picpoul (Fr.) See Folle Blanche.
pi den (Chin.) Thousand-year-old eggs: duck eggs preserved in a clay
casing made of ashes, lime, salt, and strong tea, rolled in rice husks,
and buried for three months; the yolks turn greenish brown, the
whites deep aubergine; also known as hundred-year-old eggs.
piece montee (Fr.) An ornamental centerpiece of pastillage, often
inedible and very elaborate, that usually adorned the table at important
banquets in the past. Careme's emphasis on pieces montees revealed
his passion for architecture as well as for display.
piemontaise, a la (Fr.) A classic garnish of risotto timbales mixed
with grated white truffles.
pierna de cordero (Sp.) Leg of lamb.
Piesport A village in the German Moselle Valley that produces many
fine white wines that arc fruity and delicate.
pigeonneau (Fr.) A young squab bred for the table.
pignoli (It.) Pine nuts; the French word is pigeons.
pike A freshwater fish whose sweet white flesh is used in many fine
cliches, such as the renowned quenelles de brochet; Izaak Walton
called the pike "choicely good."
pilaf' pilav, pilaw ( Micl. E. ) Rice that is briefly sauteed in butter, then steamed in stock, and often served with meat, poultry, or shellfish, with seasonings mixed in; pilaf, spelled variously, is eaten throughout the entire Middle East with regional variations and includes bulghur prepared similarly.
pilot biscuit See hardtack.
Pilsener Lager beer; strictly speaking Pilsener is only the very fine beer brewed in Pilsen, Czechoslovakia, but the term is now used generally for any high-quality lager of the same style; pale golden and lower in alcohol and calories than ordinary American beer.
Pilz (Ger.) Mushroom.
piment doux (Fr.) Sweet pepper.
pimienta (Sp.) Black pepper; pimiento means capsicum red pepper, either sweet (pimiento dulce) or hot.
pina (Sp.) Pineapple, so named for its visual resemblance to the pine cone.
Pineau de la Loire A white grape variety, whose proper name is Chenin Blanc, that produces many of the best white wines of Touraine and Anjou as well as of Saumur and California.
Pineau des Charentes (Fr.) An aperitif wine made from new wine with Cognac added, then matured in oak; it is high in alcohol, sweet, and has a distinctive bouquet.
pine nut The seed of the pine tree that comes from the pine cone, a multiple fruit.
Pinkel (Ger.) A smoked sausage of groats, raw bacon, and onions.
Pinot A family of wine grapes including the Pinot Noir, the variety from which fine red Burgundy is made, Pinot Blanc, responsible for most French Champagne, possibly Pinot Chardonnay, as well as Pinot Gris and Pinot Meunier. The Tyrol, northern Italy, and California also have many vineyards planted with Pinot grapes.
pintade (Fr.) Guinea hen; a young chick is a pintadeau; the Spanish word is pintada
pinto bean A variety of common bean, splotched a reddish color, used in many Latin American stewed dishes.
pinzimonio (It.) A dipping sauce of oil, salt, and pepper for raw vegetables.
piperade (Fr.) Tomatoes cooked in olive oil with green bell peppers and onions, with lightly beaten eggs and sometimes ham or bacon added; this Basque specialty has many variations.
pipian (Mex.) A deep red sauce for chicken made of sesame and pumpkin seeds ground with spices and sometimes peanuts or almonds.
piquante (Fr.) A classic sauce of chopped shallots reduced with white wine and vinegar, demi-grace added, strained, then garnished with chopped gherkins, parsley, chervil, and tarragon.
piquin (Mex.) A dark green chili pepper, very small and very hot.
piri-piri (Port.) A sauce made from hot red chili peppers and olive oil.
piroshki (Russ.) Small turnovers or dumplings filled with a savory or sweet stuffing; pirogi are large pastries cut into servings; the spellings vary, the fillings are infinite.
Pischingertorte (Aus. ) A torte made of round wafers filled with chocolate hazelnut cream, covered with chocolate icing.
piselli (It.) Peas; piselli alla romana are peas cooked with butter, onion, and ham.
pissaladiere (Fr.) A pizza like tart from Nice, made with anchovies,
onions, black olives, and perhaps tomatoes arranged in a decorative
pissenlit (Fr.) Dandelion leaves; the French name alludes to the plant's diuretic capabilities; wild dandelion greens are best eaten before flowering or after frost.
pistachio A deciduous tree, native to Asia, cultivated since ancient times for its nuts; their delicate flavor and green color make them useful in savory and sweet dishes, especially pates and stuffings, ice cream, and pastries.
pisto (Sp.) A vegetable dish of chopped tomatoes, red or green peppers,
zucchini, and onions stewed together, with many variations; this dish is
associated with La Mancha.
pistou, soupe au (Fr.) A rich Provencal vegetable soup, made with white beans, mange-touts, and vermicelli, garnished with crushed basil
and garlic in olive oil; pistou is the French version of pesto.
pita (Mid. E.) A flat white pocket bread.
Pithiviers (Fr.) A pastry dessert, named for the town where it
originated, consisting of a large round of puff pastry filled with almond paste and traditionally decorated with a pinwheel or rosette pattern.
pizza (It.) Literally pie, but the word usually denotes an open-faced
tart spread with all manner of savory foods; originally from southern
pizzaiolo (It.) Fresh tomato sauce with herbs and garlic, often
served with meat dishes.
plaice A European member of the flounder family; its fine-textured
and delicate white flesh is eaten fresh or sometimes smoked.
plancher (Fr.) To plank.
plank To bake or broil food, especially fish, on a board of hard Wood that seasons the food on it-a technique learned by early settlers from the American Indians.
plantain A fruit closely related to the banana, but whose higher
starch and lower sugar content make it suitable for savory cooking; a native of Central America, the plantain is usually larger than the banana but is sometimes short and fat, with green, deep red, or yellow skin.
platano (Sp.) Plantain.
pletzlach (Jew.) Apricot or plum pastry squares, traditional for
Plinz (Aus.) Pancake, fritter.
plover A shore bird particularly valued in Europe for its delicious
eggs; the lapwing and golden plover are favorite species.
pluck The heart, liver, and lungs of an animal.
plum duff (Brit.) A restrained version of plum pudding made with
dried raisins or currants; the word "duff" comes from dough.
plum pudding (Brit.) A steamed or boiled dessert of various dried
fruits (excluding plums) and suet, often flamed with brandy; traditional
for Christmas.
plum sauce See suan mei jiang.
pluvier (Fr.) Plover.
poach To cook food gently in liquid held below the boiling point.
poblano (Mex.) A large, dark green chili pepper, mild but varying in
flavor; it is about 5 inches long, 3 inches wide, and triangular in shape; sometimes available canned; when ripened and dried it becomes the
ancho chili.
pocher (Fr.) To poach.
pochouse, pauchouse (Fr.) See matelote.
podina (Ind.)Mint.
poeler (Fr. ) To cook food with a little butter or other fat in a tightly closed pot; poele means both frying pan and stove.
point, a (Fr.) Just right or to the perfect point; with reference to steak, a point means rare; with reference to fruit and cheese, it means at the peak of ripeness.
Point, Fernand (I897 - 1955) Magnanimous chef-patron of la Pyramide
in Vienne, near Lyons; at this celebrated restaurant he trained many
Of the finest chefs of the next generation, ensuring the continuity of
French cuisine; at the same time, because of his emphasis on simplicity,
Point is often called the father of nouvelle cuisine.
poire (Fr.) Pear.
poireau (Fr.) Leek.
pods (Fr. ) Pea; pods casses are split peas; pods chiches are chick-peas; petite pods are spring peas; petite pods princesse are snow peas; pods a la francaise are peas braised with lettuce, spring onions, parsley, butter, a pinch of sugar, and a little water.
poisson (Fr..) Irish; a poissonnier is a fish chef in a large restaurant kitchen or a fishmonger.
poitrine de pore (Fr.) Pork belly; poitrine can mean chest, breast,
or brisket.
poivrade (Fr.) A sauce, usually for game, of mirepoix cooked in butter with game trimmings, reduced with crushed peppercorns and herbs,
moistened with the marinade and vinegar, demi-grace and game
essence added, then strained and finished with butter.
poivre (Fr.) Pepper; grain de poivrade is peppercorn; poivre is pungent or spicy; poivron or poivre de la Jamaique is allspice; see also
Pokel (Ger.) Pickle.
pokeweed A leafy plant, usually considered a weed, that grows wild in
the eastern U.S.; only the young leaves and shoots are edible, and
they are cooked like spinach and asparagus.
polenta (It.) A cornmeal pudding eaten as a porridge or more often
cooled, sliced, and fried, grilled, or baked with various other foods;
polenta is a specialty of Venice and northeastern Italy, where natives
hold it in special regard; Marcella Hazan has written that "to call
polenta a cornmeal mush is a most indelicate use of language."
pollack A member of the cod family.
pollame (It.) Poultry.
polio (It., Sp.) Chicken; in Italian, polio ruspante means free-range
chicken; pollastrino means spring chicken.
polio a la chilindron (Sp.) Chicken braised in a sauce of sweet red
peppers, tomatoes, onions, and a little garlic and ham.
polonaise, a la (Fr.) "Polish style": vegetables, especially cauliflower or asparagus, cooked and sprinkled with chopped hard-boiled egg, bread crumbs, parsley, and melted butter.
polpetta (It.) Meat patty, croquette; polpettone is meat loaf, polpetta is meatball.
polpo, polipo, polipetto (It.) Squid or octopus; in Spanish the word
is pulpo or pulpetto; in French, poulpe.
Polsterzipfel (Aus.) A jam-filled turnover.
pomace The fruit pulp remaining after all of the juice has been pressed
out; refers particularly to apple or grape pulp in the making of cider
or wine.
pomegranate A small tree native to the Middle East with a golden red
fruit whose interior chambers hold its many edible seeds embedded
in pith; the crimson juice in the seed sacs is refreshingly acid and is
used for various savory and sweet dishes, especially in the Middle
East, as well as for grenadine; the curious formation of the fruit
probably accounts for its part in many ancient religious fertility rites.
pomelo The largest member of the citrus family, native to Malaysia and
similar to the grapefruit, with a thick coarse skin; it is fibrous and
sweet, with a dry pulp; also called shaddock, after Captain Shaddock,
an English ship commander who is said to have brought the seed
front the East Indies to Barbados in 1696. Also spelled pummelo.
Pomerol A wine-producing area in Bordeaux, just northwest of Saint
Emilion, whose velvety wines have a fullness, warmth, and depth
of flavor; Chateau Petrus is the finest among them.
Pommard A commune in Burgundy between Beaune and Volnay,
producing a quantity of red wine especially popular in the U.S.. and
England; the best, estate-bottled wines, are excellent, the lower range
is less good than its reputation.
pomme (Fr.) Apple.
Pomme de terre (Fr.) Potato (literally, "apple of the earth"); often
abbreviated to pomme, especially for certain potato preparations,
such as pommes fetes, but not to be confused with apple; pommes
fetes are French fried potatoes, as are pommes Pont-Neuf; originally
sold on the Pont Neuf over the Seine River in Paris.
pommes Anna (Fr. ) A dish of layered potato slices baked with butter
in a special casserole; brown and crisp on the outside, soft on the
inside; see also chateau potatoes.
pommes paille (Fr.) Deep-fried potato "straws."
pomodoro (It.) Tomato (literally "golden apple"), so named because
the first tomatoes in Europe, in the sixteenth century, were yellow.
pompano A silvery fish found off the southeastern U.S. coastline in the
Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; its rich white meat is a delicacy
that can be cooked in many ways, often en papillote with shrimp
and crab.
Pont-l'Eveque (Fr.) A soft, uncooked and unpressed cheese made from
whole or partially skimmed raw cows' milk, from Normandy; this
washed-rind cheese has a rich creamy texture and taste, a full aroma,
and a square golden rind.
Pont-Neuf (Fr.) See pomme de terre.
poori (Ind.) Whole-wheat deep-fried puffy bread.
poor knights of Windsor (Brit.) Sliced bread soaked in sherry, dipped in egg batter, fried in butter, and served with sugar and cinnamon; a British version of French toast.
popcorn Certain varieties of corn with a high protein content and specific moisture content; with dry heat the corn kernel explodes, and the endosperm swells into the light and crisp snack we know as popcorn.
pope's nose The tail piece of a bird; also known as parson's nose.
popone (It.) Melon.
popover A puffed-up hollow muffin made from an eggy batter very much
like that of Yorkshire pudding, baked in muffin tins, and served
with butter; American in origin.
poppy seed The dried seed of the poppy plant, much used in breads
and pastry as well as in Middle Eastern and Indian cooking.
porchetta (It.) Roast suckling pig; the Spamsh is porcella
porcino (It.) A wild mushroom, the French cepe or boletus.
porgy A saltwater fish related to the bream; bony but with delicate
moist flesh, the porgy is best barbecued or fried.
porridge A cereal or grain, usually oatmeal, cooked in water or milk
to a thick pudding like consistency; it may or may not be flavored
with salt, sugar, butter, and various other ingredients.
porro (It.) Leek.
port A sweet fortified dessert wine from Portugal's upper Douro Valley,
shipped from Oporto (hence the name); brandy is added to partially
fermented grape juice, arresting fermentation and producing a strong,
sweet wine that is then matured. Vintage port is wine from exceptional
years that is unblended, bottled young (usually in England), and then
aged for at least a dozen years. Tawny port is blended with wine
from several years, aged in oak in Oporto to give it a rounder flavor
and softer color, then bottled and shipped ready for sale. Ruby port
is kept in wood for a shorter time to retain its color and can be
blended or not, either in Oporto or England. White port is made
similarly but from white grapes.
porter (Brit.) A very dark and strongly flavored lager beer in which
malt is toasted before brewing; porter is usually higher in alcohol
than lager beer.
porterhouse A superior cut of beef from the short loin next to the
T-bone, with a large portion of the filet mignon and strip loin.
porto, au (Fr.) A classic French sauce of demi-grace and port; when
a l'anglaise it is a reduction of port, orange and lemon juice and
zest, shallots, and thyme, strained and mixed with veal stock.
Port-Salut (Fr.) An uncooked, pressed, pasteurized cows' milk cheese,
originally made on a small scale by Trappist monks, using unpasteurized
milk (this type of cheese is now called Entrammes), but now factory
produced; similar to its cousin Saint-Paulin.
portugaise (Fr.) A classic sauce of chopped onions cooked in butter
or oil, with chopped tomatoes, tomato sauce, meat glaze, garlic, and
chopped parsley; the garnish a la portugaise is stuffed tomatoes with
chateau potatoes and portugaise sauce.
posses (Brit.) An old-fashioned punch made of milk, eggs, wine or ale,
lemon juice, spices, and sugar, with whipped cream folded in; a
remedy for colds as far back as the Middle Ages, posses is akin to
syllabub or our latter-day eggnog.
postre (Sp.) Dessert.
potage (Fr.) Soup, especially a thickened vegetable soup, but not as
hearty as soupe; the Spanish word potaje means a thick soup or
potage Saint-Cloud (Fr.) A soup of green peas and lettuce pureed;
served with croutons.
potato flour Flour ground from cooked potatoes, used in thickening
gravies and soups and in breads, where it keeps the crumb moister
than wheat flour.
pot-au-feu (Fr.) Meat and vegetables cooked together in water; the
resulting broth is served first, followed by the meat and vegetables
as the main course; this classic provincial dish can contain several
different meats.
pot de creme (Fr. ) A small, individual covered cup that holds custard, mousse, and similar desserts; the top keeps a skin from forming on custards.
potee (Fr.) Originally any food cooked in an earthenware pot, now
usually a thick soup of pork and vegetables-often potatoes and
potiron (Fr.) Pumpkin.
pot liquor, potlikker The broth remaining after greens and vegetables
have been cooked; it is nutritious and an essential part of southern
Black cooking, usually served with cornbread or corn pone.
potpie Meat or poultry and perhaps vegetables, cut up and baked with
gravy in a deep dish covered with pie crust; American in origin and
ranging in quality from the ridiculous to the sublime.
pot roasting A method of braising food (usually large cuts of meat)
slowly in a tightly covered pot; the food is browned in a little fat
and cooked with some stock or other liquid and vegetables over low
heat until tender.
potted shrimps (Brit.) Small shrimps shelled, warmed in clarified
butter, seasoned with mace or nutmeg, and preserved in the butter
for a few days; served as an hors d'oeuvre with brown bread.
Pouilly-Fuisse A popular white wine from southern Burgundy, just
west of Macon, made from the Chardonnay grape; it is dry, clean, fresh,
and fruity, with a lovely bouquet.
Pouilly Fume (Fr.) A white wine produced from the Sauvignon Blanc
grape in the village of Pouilly-sur-Loire: dry, pale, fresh, with a slightly "smoky" (fume) quality; similar to its neighbor Sancerre but no
relation to Pouilly-Fuisse.
poularde (Fr.) A fat hen or chicken-a "roaster"-over four pounds
in weight.
poule-au-pot (Fr. ) Pot-au-feu including a sausage-stuffed chicken,
made famous by Henri IV's perhaps apocryphal remark that he wanted every
household in France to have poule-au-pot on Sunday; the chicken
is a plump hen, even though poule means stewing chicken.
poulet (Fr.) A young spring chicken-a "fryer" or "broiler"-weighing
up to about four pounds;; poule means a stewing chicken, one that
is too old for other treatment; poulet d'lnde is a turkey.
Pouligny-Saint-Pierre (Fr.) A goats' milk cheese, uncooked and un-
pressed, from Berry; soft, crumbly, and pyramid-shaped.
poultry All domestic fowl, excluding game birds.
pound cake Cake traditionally made with one pound each of flour,
butter, sugar, and eggs.
pourriture noble (Fr.) Noble rot.
pousse (Fr.) Rise, as in a first rise for yeast pastry.
poussin (Fr.) A very young chicken.
Powidl (Aus. ) A special plum preserve used for pastries and puddings
pozole (Mex.) A thick soup, almost a stew, made of pork, hominy, and
large white dried cacabuazintle corn kernels, and served with a hot
chili sauce.
praline Almonds, or in America, often pecans in a caramel syrup or coating; in French cooking, praline is usually crushed and added to confections; named after the seventeenth century French marechal du Plessis-Praslin, duc de Choiseul, whose chef created this preparation; the adjective is praline.
prawn A crustacean similar to the shrimp, strictly speaking, but the term is used loosely for any large shrimp.
Preiselbeer (Ger.) A red berry similar to the cranberry.
Premier Cru (Fr.) For Burgundy wine, the next to highest classification of vineyards, usually including the name of the vineyard's commune as well as the name of the vineyard itself. For Premier Cru wines from Bordeaux, see classed growth.
pre-sale (Fr.) Lamb and mutton from coastal Normandy that graze on saltmarsh meadows (hence the name), giving their flesh a special salty flavor much prized.
pressure cooker A covered pot that, because it is under pressure, can cook food above the boiling point, saving time and energy. Pressure cookers are suitable for any food cooked by moist heat, such as soup, stock, stew, pudding, and preserves, but generally not for meat. A safety valve keeps the cooker from exploding in case of malfunction.
pretzel A crisp savory kind of biscuit made from a Hour and water paste that is formed into a rope and twisted into a knot, sprinkled with coarse salt, and baked; the pretzel is associated with German cooking but goes back to the Romans; the name may come from the Latin word for bracelet.
prezzemolo (It.) Parsley, which in Italy is the flat leafed variety.
prickly pear An edible cactus, native to Mexico, with a spiny exterior and soft interior flesh, eaten fresh or sometimes cooked; the fruit is shaped like a pear and tastes rather sweet and mild; also called Indian fig.
primavera, alla (It.) Literally,, "spring style"; dishes so garnished, especially pasta, include raw or blanched spring vegetables, the Italian version of a la printaniere.
prime Top-quality beef graded by the U.S.. Department of Agriculture- the top 10 percent of beef cattle, available mostly in restaurants and special retail outlets, but not generally sold in markets.
primeur (Fr.) Early or forced fruit or vegetables; also first or new wine, as in Beaujolais Nouveau.
princesse, a la (Fr.) A classic garnish of asparagus tips with sliced truffles in cream sauce; also artichoke bottoms stuffed with asparagus tips, served with noisette potatoes.
pringar (Sp.) To baste.
printaniere, a la (Fr.) Literally "spring style"; garnished with spring vegetables; the classic garnish consists of new carrots, turnips cut into olive shapes, peas, small green beans, and asparagus tips.
processed cheese Cheese produced by means of a technique developed
in the early twentieth century: green and aged cheeses, often of
different varieties and qualities, are finely ground and blended. Emul-
sifiers are mixed in before the cheese is pasteurized to arrest ripening, and it is packaged in plastic while still hot. Certain kinds of acid, salt, preservatives, coloring, spices, water, and other additives may also be used.
profiteroles (Fr.) Small puffs of choux paste often filled with
whipped cream or creme patissiere and piled high in a dish with chocolate sauce poured over; or as an hors d'oeuvre, stuffed with something savory or flavored with cheese.
prosciutto (It.) Fresh ham cured by salting and air-drying but not
generally by smoking; the name implies that it is crudo, or uncooked,
although prosciutto cotto (cooked) is also made; ham from Parma,
where pigs are fed the Parmigiano whey, is especially fine and
somewhat sweet in flavor.
provencal (Fr.) From Provence; the classic sauce consists of
chopped tomatoes sauteed in olive oil with garlic, parsley, and a pinch of sugar; the garnish a la provencale is small tomatoes with stuffed mushrooms and parsley.
Provence A region in southeastern France on the Mediterranean; garlic
and olive oil are the basis of its pungent cuisine, and the region
abounds with herbs, vegetables, and seafood, not unlike its neighbor,
Provolone (It.) A cooked and kneaded spun-curd cheese made from
cows' milk, originally from southern Italy; Provolone is made in many
versions, shapes, and sizes, and is matured either briefly or up to two
years; when two to three months old, its color and flavor are buttery
and pale; it becomes more pungent when aged and is used then for
prugna (It.) Plum; pruna and prugna secca both mean prune.
prune ( Lr. ) Plum; pruneau means prune.
puchero (Sp.) Pot; puchero de gallina is a special dish of braised
stuffed chicken with a sauce of chicken livers; in the Mexican Yucatan,
puchero is a hot pot including various meats, vegetables, legumes'
and even fruit, with the broth served first, followed by the solids.
pudding A vague culinary term which in Britain usually means dessert,
but can also mean a savory dish, because of its derivation from boudin
meaning sausage.
pudim flan ( Port. ) The Portuguese version of caramel custard, richer
and thicker than the Spanish.
puerco (Sp.) Pig, pork.
puerro (Sp.) Leek.
Puffer (Ger.) Pancake, fritter.
puff pastry See pate feuilletee.
pun' d'amour (Fr.) Literally, "wishing well": a small round pastry filled with pastry cream, jelly, or fruit.
Puligny-Montrachet A village in the Burgundian Cote de Beaune which,
with its neighbor Chassagne-Montrachet, produces excellent dry white
wine, almost all from the Chardonnay grape.
pullao (Ind.) Pilaf.
pullet A young hen under one year old.
pulse The edible seeds, often dried, of leguminous plants such as
peas, beans, lentils, and chick-peas; respected by the ancients and virtually all cultures since for their nutritional importance.
Pultost (Nor.) A cooked cows' milk cheese, soft and rind less, often
flavored with caraway and eaten year-round.
pumpernickel A dark, coarse-textured, slightly sour bread made
from unbolted rye flour; originally from Westphalia, Germany.
puree (Fr.) Food that is mashed, very finely chopped, or pushed through
a sieve to achieve a smooth consistency.
purl (Ind.) Puffed, light, whole-wheat bread that is deep-fried in
vegetable oil; from northern and central India.
purslane A once-popular herb with small fleshy leaves, now considered
a weed except by the French, who eat it fresh in salad and boiled
or sauteed like spinach; in its native India it is used more widely.
Puter (Ger.) Turkey.
pyramide (Fr.) The generic name for chevre, or fresh goats' milk
cheese, uncooked and unpressed, shaped in a small truncated pyramid;
this type of cheese is very white, soft, crumbly, and delicate in flavor, becoming sharper if allowed to mature; it is sometimes covered with vegetable ash to keep it from drying out.
quadrucci (It.) "Little squares" of egg pasta for chicken or meat broth.
quaglia (It.) Quail.
quahog A hard-shelled North Atlantic clam found off the New England coast; appropriate for many preparations, the very large ones with heavy shells are particularly good for chowder.
quail A small migratory game bird (two or three per serving) relished for its delicious flavor; there are many varieties the world over, but since wild quail are becoming scarce, those that we eat today are mostly farm-bred; the meat is cooked without hanging.
Quark (Ger.) A soft, runny, acid-curd cows' milk cheese made from skimmed or partially skimmed milk; Quark is a type of cottage cheese and is eaten with fruit or salad or used in cooking; originally Central European and also spelled Quarg or Kvarg; known as Topfen in Austria and widely used in such pastries as Topfen .Schnitten and Topfen Strudel.
Quartirolo (It.) A soft, uncooked, pressed, whole-milk cows' cheese from Lombardy, similar to Taleggio but cured in caves where it
acquires a mushroomy flavor; square, with a thin washed rind, the
paste is smooth, pale, and creamy; still made by traditional small scale
farmhouse methods.
quasi de veau bourgeoise (Fr.) Veal chump or hind end braised in
a casserole with pork, calf's foot, and vegetables.
quatre-epices (Fr.) A mixture of finely ground ginger, clove, nutmeg,
and white pepper; a descendant of the elaborate spice mixtures used
to flavor savory and sweet food in the Middle Ages.
quatre-quarts (Fr.) A classic pound cake, made of "four quarters";
that is, equal parts of egg, butter, flour, and sugar.
queen of puddings (Brit.) A bread crumb and custard pudding base
baked with strawberry jam covering, then topped with meringue and
lightly browned in the oven.
Queensland nut See macadamia nut.
queijo ( Port. ) Cheese.
quenelle (Fr.) A light dumpling made of seafood, chicken, game, or
veal forcemeat bound with eggs; although quenelles were once quite
large, nowadays they are usually small ovals, like light mousselines,
poached in simmering water or broth and served with a creamy or
buttery sauce.
quesadilla (Mex.) A tortilla turnover filled with a savory stuffing and toasted or fried.
queso (Sp.) Cheese; queso bianco is the fresh, smooth, rindless cows'
milk cheese made throughout Latin America; it is an acid-curd cheese
made from whole or partially skimmed milk, pressed, salted, and eaten
fresh with fruit or matured for two or three months.
quetsch A variety of plum made into tarts and other confections but
best known for the clear colorless eau de vie or liqueur distilled
from it in Alsace.
queue de boeuf (Fr.) Oxtail.
quiche (Fr. ) An open custard tart, usually savory, from Alsace and
Lorraine; in the United States it has come to mean quiche Lorraine,
which is filled with eggs, cream, bacon, and ( more recently ) Gruyere,
but the variations are infinite; from the German word Kuchen.
quick bread Any bread or muffin made with a quick-acting leavening
agent, usually baking powder or baking soda.
quince A tree indigenous to Persia, whose fruit may be the golden apple
of antiquity; popular throughout the temperate world until the last
century or so, especially for pies and preserves. it is now largely
ignored except in the Middle East; long. slow cooking and generous
amounts of sugar bring out the quince's mellow flavor and golden
Quitte (Ger.) Quince; Quittengelee is quince marmalade.

~ R ~

(Ind.) Thickened, reduced milk.
rabano (Sp.) Radish.
rabattage (Lr.) Deflating the dough in yeast pastry-making.
rabbit A small member of the hare family, both wild and domesticated,
whose flesh can vary in flavor depending on its age and diet; leaner
and sweeter than chicken, rabbit is cooked in similar ways.
rabbit, Welsh See Welsh rarebit.
rable de lievre (Fr.. ) Saddle of hare.
Rachel (Fr.) Garnished with bone marrow and accompanied by bor-
delaise sauce; for tournedos.
racine (Fr.) Root vegetable.
rack A cut of lamb or veal from the rib section, with tender and flavorful meat; can be kept whole, cut into seven rib chops, or made into crown roast.
racking Drawing off clear wine from one barrel or vat to another, leaving the sediment.
Raclette (Switz.) From the verb racier, "to scrape"; half a large wheel of cows' milk cheese is placed near the fire, melting the rich,
buttery cheese, which is scraped onto a plate and eaten with boiled potatoes en chemise, pickled onions, and gherkins. A specialty of the Valais region of the Swiss Alps; see also walliser.
radicchio (It.) A type of chicory with red or pinkish leaves, used for
garnishing or for salad, whose root can also be delicious. In the U.S.,
Verona chicory has recently enjoyed a vogue; in Italy there are other
types as well, and they are often cooked.
radis (Fr.) Radish.
rafano (It.) Horseradish.
rafffinade (Fr. and Ger.) Refined sugar.
rafraichir (Fr.) To "refresh" boiling vegetables by plunging them into
cold water to halt cooking and retain color; to chill.
ragout (Fr.) A stew of meat, poultry, or fish, which may contain veg-
etables; a ragout literally "restores the appetite."
Ragout fin (Ger.) A delicate combination of organ meats such as
sweetbreads and brains, cooked with mushrooms in a winy cream
sauce; often served in a puff pastry shell.
ragu Bolognese (It.) A meat sauce from Bologna and not a stew or
ragout as commonly thought; often used for pasta. Ground beef and
sometimes pork and ham are sauteed in butter and oil with chopped
vegetables and simmered with milk, white wine, and tomatoes. Pasta
alla bolognese designates this sauce.
Ragusano (It.) A spun-curd cows' milk cheese from Sicily, cooked,
kneaded, and sometimes smoked; rectangular in shape; delicate and
sliceable table cheeses are matured for three months, firm, sharp
grating cheeses up to twelve months.
Rahm (Ger.) Cream.
raidir (Fr.) To sear.
raie (Fr.) Skate.
raifort (Fr.) Horseradish.
Rainwater A general term for a very pale dry Madeira developed by
an American in the early nineteenth century.
raisin (Fr.) (,rape; raisin sec is raisin; raisin de Corintbe is currant.
raita (Ind.)Vegetables, raw or cooked, or sometimes fruits, mixed with yogurt.
rajas (Mex.) Poblano or other chili strips, fried with onions and sometimes potatoes or tomatoes.
rajma (Ind.) Red kidney beans.
rallado (Sp.) Grated.
ramen (Jap.) Chinese soup noodles.
ramequin (Fr.) A small flameproof dish; the English term is ramekin;
also a small cheese tart.
ramp A wild leek-an Appalachian spring delicacy-that looks like a
scallion but tastes stronger.
rampion A plant, cultivated or wild (but rarely eaten nowadays), whose
leaves are eaten like spinach and whose roots, also either raw or
cooked, taste like salsify.
ranchero (Sp.) Country style; salsa ranchera combines tomatoes, ser-
rano chilies, garlic, and onion into a hot and spicy sauce known best
in huevos rancheros but also served with meat.
rape (It.) Turnip.
rape A type of turnip whose seeds yield an oil used for salad and frying (mostly in India and the Mediterranean) and for blending in margarine; it is sometimes called colza The young leaves and shoots can be braised as a vegetable but are mostly used for fodder; in southern
Italy, where rape is called broccolirab, the tender leaves and stems
are best appreciated, especially as a robust accompaniment to
rape (Sp.) Monkfish, angler.
raper (Fr.) To grate, especially cheese; the adjective is rape.
rarebit See Welsh rarebit.
rasher (Brit.) A slice of bacon or ham.
ratafia A liqueur flavored by infusion with the kernels of certain fruits, such as peaches and apricots; a favorite homemade Victorian cordial. In Britain the word also means macaroon.
ratatouille (Fr.) A vegetable stew or saute from Provence of diced
eggplant, tomatoes, zucchini, green peppers, onions, and garlic all
cooked in olive oil; there are many variations, and it can be eaten
hot or cold.
rauchern (Ger.) To smoke.
Rauenthal A village in the German Rheingau that produces perhaps
the best Rhine wines: fruity, elegant, with a characteristic spiciness.
ravanello (It.) Radish.
rave (Fr.) Turnip or other root vegetable.
ravigote (Fr.) A classic cold sauce of vinaigrette with capers,
chopped onions, and herbs; as a classic sauce served hot, it is a reduction of white wine and vinegar with veloute, shallot butter, and herbs.
ravioli (It.) Small pasta squares filled with spinach, ricotta, and herbs rather than meat; see also agnolotti.
raw Uncooked, fresh; in reference to milk products, the word means
ray See skate.
raya (Sp.) Skate.
Reblochon (Fr.) An uncooked, lightly pressed cows' milk cheese made
in the Haute-Savoie and across the Italian border. Originally made
with the undeclared second milking (concealed from the owner after
his quota had been collected), while the milk was still warm, it is a rich, soft, and delicately fruity cheese shaped in a disc and with a golden rind.
recette (Fr.) Recipe.
rechauffe (Fr.) Food that is reheated or made with leftovers.
recolte (Fr.) Harvest, crop, vintage.
red beans and rice A Louisiana specialty of red beans (sometimes
kidney beans) and rice, cooked with ham hock; there are many vari-
ations. Louis Armstrong signed his letters, "Red beans and ricely
redeye gravy Ham gravy made with ice water or even coffee and
perhaps a little brown sugar; served in the South for breakfast with grits and biscuits.
red flannel hash Cooked beets fried with bacon, potatoes, and onions,
and often served with corn bread; rustic American fare.
red herring Herring salted strongly to a deep red color.
red mullet See mullet.
red snapper A saltwater fish from the Gulf of Mexico, usually marketed
at about five pounds but sometimes much larger; there are many
types of snapper, but the rosy red snapper, with white, succulent,
sweet meat, is a choice delicacy cooked in many ways, often stuffed
reduce To boil down a liquid to thicken its consistency and concentrate
its flavor, as in a reduction sauce. Escoffier was the first chef to
thicken sauces by reduction rather than with flour or other starch.
reduire (Fr.) To reduce.
Reforme, a la (Fr.) Lamb chops bread crumbed, fried, and garnished
with julienne of ham, truffles, carrots, and hard-boiled egg whites,
with a poivrade sauce; created by Alexis Soyer for the Reform Club
in London.
refried beans Cooked pinto beans, mashed and fried with garlic, often
for a tortilla filling; of Mexican-American origin. See also frijoles.
regence, a la (Fr.) Garnished with quenelles, truffles, foie gras,
and cockscombs if for sweetbreads or chicken, or with oysters and roe
if for fish-a classic garnish.
Regensburgerwurst (Ger.) A short, fat sausage of pork and beef.
Reh (Ger.) Venison; Rehrucken is saddle of venison and also an oblong
chocolate cake garnished with almonds.
reiben (Ger.) To grate or rub; a Reibschale is a mortar.
reine, a la (Fr.) Garnished with chicken in some form; named after
Louis XVI's queen.
Reis (Ger.) Rice.
relacher (Fr.) To thin a sauce or puree with liquid; literally, to relax or loosen.
releve (Fr.) Highly seasoned.
religieuse (Fr.) Resembling a nun's habit-hence the name-this pastry is a small cream puff atop a large one, each filled with creme patissiere, glazed, and decorated with buttercream.
relleno (Sp.) Stuffing, stuffed.
remol (Sp.) Brill.
remolacha (Sp.) Beet.
remoulade (Fr.) Mayonnaise seasoned with mustard, anchovy essence,
chopped gherkins, capers, parsley, chervil, and tarragon-a classic
remuage (Fr.) In making Champagne, the daily shaking and turning
of the bottles, nearly upside down, to bring the sediment down to
the cork before the degorgement.
Renaissance, a la (Fr.) Various spring vegetables arranged separately
around a large roast-a classic garnish.
render To melt fat, thus clarifying the drippings to use in cooking or
rennet The stomach lining of an unweaned calf, kid, or lamb, containing
rennin and other enzymes that coagulate milk; in cheese making,. rennet
extracts are used to curdle milk. There are also vegetable rennets
with the same property.
renverser (Fr.) To unmold or turn out onto a serving dish.
repollo (Sp.) Cabbage.
repos (Fr.) A rest, as for the resting of dough in pastry-making.
resserrer (Fr. ) To "tighten" or pull a sauce together by thickening it.
Rettich (Ger.) Radish.
revenir (Fr.) To brown, as for meat (faire revenir).
Rheingau A white wine district in Germany where the Rhine flows east
west for twenty miles between Mainz and Rudesheim; the southern facing
slopes produce the finest German wines, mostly Rieslings,
which are separately entered.
Rheinpfalz A wine-producing region in Germany, also known as the
Palatinate,, west of the Rhine and northeast of Alsacc-Lorraine; the
vineyards arc on the slopes of the Harz mountains.
Rhine A major river flowing northwest to the North Sea through West
Germany; along her slopes and those of her tributaries, especially the
Nahe and the Moselle, most German wine is produced; spelled Rhein
in German.
Rhone A major river flowing west from Switzerland through Lake Geneva
and south through France into the Mediterranean; along her slopes
many wine grapes are grown, most notably those grown in France
between Lyons and the sea. for Rhone wines.
rhubarb Native to southeastern Russia, this leafy vegetable is cultivatedfor its thick reddish stalks, which are used in pies and compotes and occasionally in savory sauces. The leaves are poisonous, but the astringent stalks are made palatable for "fruit" desserts with lots of sugar and cooking.
rib A section of beef from the top forequarter comprising the most tender steak and roast cuts,, including the Delmonico, rib-eye, rib steak, and rib roast.
ribes (It.) Gooseberry, currant.
rib-eye steak A cut of beef from the rib section, virtually the same as a Delmonico except that the rib-eye has been further trimmed of fat.
ribollita (It.) A hearty soup of white beans, vegetables, bread, cheese, and olive oil, from Florence; usually served reheated, hence the name.
rib roast A cut of beef from the forequarter, between the chuck and loin; this seven-rib cut is often divided into three parts, the first cut of which, partially boned, becomes the "prime ribs" of a standing rib roast.
rice To force cooked fruits or vegetables, especially potatoes, through an instrument with small perforations in it, so that the food resembles grains of rice; the tool is called a ricer.
rice A grain native to India and probably the world's most important food crop, especially in Asia where it has been cultivated for millennia. The thousands of varieties divide into long grained rice, which separates into distinct kernels when cooked, and short-grained rice, which is higher in starch, wetter, and stickier when cooked. In the milling process, removal of the hull produces brown rice Removal of the bran and most of the germ produces unpolished rice. To reduce spoilage, removal of the outer aleurone layer produces polished rice, which is then coated with a thin layer of vitamins (which should not be rinsed off). Converted rice has been steamed and dried before milling for higher nutritional content and easier processing. "Instant" rice grains have been partially cooked and split open. See also wild rice.
rice wine Distilled from fermented rice and made in many varieties, qualities, and strengths, rice wine is far less common in China than it used to be. Sake, sherry, Scotch whisky, or dry vermouth can be substituted for rice wine in cooking.
Richelieu, a la (Fr.) Garnished with stuffed tomatoes and mushrooms, braised lettuce, chateau potatoes, and veal stock-a classic garnish for meat.
ricotta (It.) Strictly speaking not a cheese, ricotta is made from the leftover whey from other cheeses, either ewes' or cows' milk, and is sometimes enriched with milk or cream. As the whey is heated, the
cloudy top layer is skimmed off and drained to make the cheese.
Bland, slightly sweet, and dry, ricotta is eaten fresh or cooked in
pasta dishes and sweet desserts.
Riesling A superlative white-wine grape variety probably native to the
Rhine Valley, where it has been cultivated since the Romans; the
grape has been transplanted to many other countries where it continues
to distinguish itself. It is fortunately subject to noble rot.
rigaglie (It.) Giblets.
rigatoni (It.) Fat-ribbed macaroni, commercially made.
rigodon (Fr.) A brioche custard tart filled with bacon, ham, nuts, or
pureed fruit, served either warm or cold; a specialty of Burgundy.
rijstaffel (Neth.) Literally "rice table," this is the elaborate colonial Dutch version of the Indonesian rice table, with dozens of side dishes. The various offerings in the buffet include meat and seafood dishes, savory fried and steamed foods, sates, sauces, vegetable salads, rice, fruit, and chili dishes-hot and cool, spicy and bland-in great profusion.
rillettes (Fr.) Pork cubed and cooked with its fat and herbs, then
pounded in a mortar and potted; goose and rabbit are sometimes
prepared similarly. Rillauds and rillons are the same but are not
Rind (Ger.) Beef; Rinderbraten is roast beef, Rinderbrust is brisket of
beef, Rindertalg is beef suet, Rindswurst is beef sausage.
rinones (Sp.) Kidneys.
Rioja A wine region in northern Spain where light, dry, and refined red
wines and more ordinary white wines are made.
ripieno (It.) Stuffed or filled; stuffing.
Ripp (Ger.) Rib; Rippenbraten is roast loin, Rippenspeer is ribs of pork, Rippenstuck is a chop.
ris (Scand.) Rice.
de veau (Fr.) Vcal sweetbreads; ris d'agneau are lamb sweetbreads.
rive (It.) Rice; risi e bisi is a very thick soup of rice and spring peas cooked in broth with onion, parsley, and Parmesan-a Venetian
risotto (It.) Rice cooked in butter with a little chopped onion to which stock is gradually added as it is absorbed; all manner of savory foods can be added; Arborio rice gives the proper texture, tender and
creamy but never sticky.
risotto milanese (It.) Risotto flavored with saffron; a classic
accompaniment to osso buco.
rissoler (Fr.) To brown in hot fat; rissole refers to food, such as potatoes, that has been fried thus; a rissole is a puff-pastry turnover or fritter that is stuffed, often with ground meat, and deep-fried.
riz (Fr.) Rice.
riz a l'imperatrice (Fr.) Rice pudding flavored with vanilla, crystallized fruit soaked in Kirsch, and custard cream.
roast To cook food by baking it in hot dry air, either in an oven or on or near a fire or hot stones; by extension, the noun roast is a large piece of meat that has been roasted.
Robert (Fr.) A classic sauce of sauteed onions reduced with white wine and vinegar, demi-grace added, and finished with mustard.
Robiola (It.) A soft, uncooked, and unpressed cheese from northern Italy; in Lombardy, cows' milk is used and the cheeses are shaped in rectangles, while in Piedmont either ewes' or goats' milk is used, perhaps mixed with cows', and the cheeses are shaped in discs. Robiola is named for its reddish thin rind; the interior paste is smooth and even.
robusta A type of coffee bean, hardy, prolific, and high in caffeine, but with a flavor inferior to arabica; used mostly for commercial blends and instant coffee.
Rock Cornish game hen A crossbreed of a Plymouth hen and a cock from Cornwall which, when fresh, can be deliciously succulent.
rocket An aromatic salad herb much loved by the Italians but usually disdained by Anglo-Saxons for its peppery, piquant taste (at least until the new California cuisine made it fashionable); also called arugula, rugola, and misticanza, but not to be confused with a poisonous weed also called rocket.
rockfish A large family of saltwater fish in the Pacific, sometimes mistakenly called red snapper or rock cod; the firm, lean, delicate flesh is versatile and is especially appreciated by the Chinese.
rodaballo (Sp.) Turbot.
roe Fish or shellfish eggs, ranging from the humble cod all the way to beluga caviar; the male milt is sometimes, rather euphemistically, called soft roe.
roebuck Male roe deer; venison.
Roggenbrot (Ger.) Rye bread.
roghan josh (Ind.) Spiced lamb braised in yogurt and cream; from Kashmir.
rognons (Fr.) Kidneys; rognonnade de veau is saddle of veal with kidneys attached. In Italian the word is rognoni.
rognures (Fr.) Trimmings, especially in making pate feuilletee, useful for certain kinds of pastry; also called demi-feuilletage.
roh (Ger.) Raw; Rohkost means raw vegetables or crudites.
Rohwurst (Ger.) Sausage cured and smoked by the butcher, eaten uncooked.
role (It.) A slice of meat stuffed and rolled; rollatini are small rolls; in Spanish the word is rollo.
rollmop See herring rollmop.
roly-poly pudding (Brit.) A nursery pudding of suet or biscuit-dough crust, spread with jam, rolled up, and baked or steamed.
romaine lettuce A variety of lettuce with long, thick central stems and narrow, green leaves; also called cos lettuce.
Romanee-Conti An exceedingly fine, rare, and celebrated red Burgundy wine from the Cote d'Or, made from the Pinot Noir grape.
Romano See Pecorino Romano.
Romanoff, strawberries See strawberries Romanoff.
Romarin (Fr.) Rosemary.
Roncal (Sp.) A ewes' milk cheese from the Navalle Valley in Spain, similar to Manchego but smaller and harder; the texture is close grained, the flavor pungent.
Roquefort (Fr. ) An ancient and celebrated blue cheese made from the milk of Larzac sheep; the curd from the raw, uncooked milk is molded, salted, and inoculated with Penicillium roqueforti then matured for three months in limestone caves in the southwestern town of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon, whose fissures naturally provide the proper humidity and ventilation. The six-pound round cheeses have a thin orange rind, an ivory paste with blue green veining (persiflage), and a salty and sharp but still creamy taste that is unique.
roquette (Fr.) Rocket.
rosbif (Fr.) Roast beef.
rose (Fr.) Wine made from black grapes with some of the skins included during fermentation, thus producing its characteristic color; rose is best drunk young and served well chilled. The Italian word for rose is rosato.
rose hips The fruit of certain roses, which turn red with ripeness; used for making syrup and jelly; high in vitamin C.
rosemary A shrub native to the Mediterranean, whose needlelike leaves are used dried and fresh as an herb, especially with pork, lamb, veal, and game. Its name means "dew of the sea," although often mistakenly thought to mean "rose of the Virgin Mary." To the ancient Egyptians it symbolized death, to the Greeks and Romans it also meant love.
Rosenkohl (Ger.) Brussels sprouts.
rosewater An extract distilled from water steeped with rose petals, which impart their essential oil; this extract is used as a flavoring in the Middle East, the Balkans, and India.
rosine (Ger.) Raisin.
rosmarino (It.) Rosemary.
rossini (Fr.) A classic garnish of foie gras, sliced truffles, and demi glace, usually for tournedos; named after the composer and gastronome Gioacchino Rossini (1792 - 1868).
Rostbraten (Ger.) In northern Germany, roast beef; in Bavaria and
Austria, a thin steak quickly cooked with onions and gravy.
Rostbratwurst (Ger.) Ham sausage seasoned with caraway and nutmeg,
roasted over a wood fire.
Rosti (Switz.) Potatoes grated and fried in a pancake.
roti (Ind.) Bread.
rotl (Fr.) Roasted, a roast; a rotisserie is a broiling device with a motorized spit for roasting large pieces of meat and birds; a rotisseur is the cook responsible for roasting in a large kitchen.
Rotwein (Ger.) Red wine.
rouelle (Fr.) A round slice of meat.
rouennaise (Fr.) Bordelaise sauce with a reduction of red wine and
shallots, finished with pureed raw duck livers-a classic sauce.
rouges (Fr.) Red mullet.
rouille (Fr.) A spicy red pepper and garlic mayonnaise from Provence,
served with fish soups.
roulade (Fr. ) A rolled slice of meat or piece of fish filled with a savory stuffing; the term can also mean a sheet of sponge cake or the like spread with a suitable filling, rolled up, and perhaps garnished.
Roulade (Ger.) Stuffed rolled beef.
rouleau (Fr.) Rolling pin.
round A cut of beef from the hindquarter, comprising the hind leg; the
top and bottom round, eye of round, and top sirloin (sirloin tip) are
lean subdivisions that can be further cut into steaks or left whole
and braised or roasted.
roux (Fr.) A mixture of flour and butter or other fat, usually in equal
proportions, cooked together slowly and used to thicken sauces and
soups. A white roux is heated long enough to cook the flour but not
color it and is used for bechamel and veloute sauces; a blond roux
is allowed to color slightly during cooking; a brown roux, which may
use a clarified fat other than butter, is cooked slowly for a long time
so that it acquires a mellow brown shade to color the sauces it
thickens. The word roux means reddish or reddish brown.
rowanberry The fruit of the mountain ash, which ripens in the fall. The berries are used to make a bright red, tart jelly often served with
lamb, venison, and other game; in Alsace an eau de vie is made from
the berries.
royale (Fr.) Unsweetened custard, possibly flavored, cooked in a mold
and then cut into decorative shapes; used to garnish clear soups.
royale, charlotte See charlotte.
royal icing Icing used for pastry-writing, decorating, and glazing
Christmas or wedding cakes; made from confectioners' sugar, egg white, and a little lemon juice.
royan (Fr.) Fresh sardine.
Rube (Ger.) Turnip, rape; Weisserube is turnip, Roterube is beet, Gelberube is carrot.
ruchetta (It.) Rocket.
Rucken (Ger.) Saddle.
rucola (It.) Rocket.
Rudesheim A small town on the western end of the Rheingau, opposite
the mouth of the Nahe, on whose steep slopes excellent Riesling
wines are produced.
rue An herb used by the ancients for medicinal puposes but now used
only as a flavoring for grappa.
rugola (It.) Rocket.
Ruhrei (Ger.) Scrambled eggs.
rump A cut of beef from the round, usually braised or roasted; unboned,
it is a standing rump roast, while boned, it is a rolled rump roast.
ruote (It.) Wheel-shaped pasta.
rusk Bread sliced and baked again slowly until crisp and golden brown,
such as zwieback.
russe, a la (Fr.) Food served sequentially course by course, hot from
the kitchen, as opposed to all of the dishes for a service being laid
out on the table in a large and elaborate display (service a la francaise); this Russian style of service gradually overtook the older French style in the early nineteenth century and survives today, greatly simplified.
russe, charlotte (Fr.) See charlotte.
rustica, alla (It.) A spaghetti sauce of anchovies, garlic, oregano, and Pecorino cheese.
rutabaga A yellow or Swedish turnip; a swede.
rye A grain native to central Asia and invaluable because of its hardiness in poor soils, in cool climates, and at high altitudes; it has long been the favored flour of northern and eastern Europe. Because it does not form gluten well, rye and wheat flours are often mixed together
for bread. In the U.S.. it is also used to make whiskey and for fodder.
See also pumpernickel.
ryori (Jap.) Food, cooking.

~ S ~

(Ind.) Greens or spinach.
Saankase (Switz.) A cooked, pressed, hard cheese made from cows'
milk from two successive milkings; it is made into large orange discs,
aged up to five years, and prized as a dessert or grating cheese for
its mellow fragrant flavor.
Saar A German tributary of the Moselle River whose vineyards produce
white wine that is legally Moselle but with an austere quality of its
saba (Jap. ) Mackerel.
sabayon (Fr.) The French version of zabaglione, in which various
wines or liqueurs can be substituted for Marsala.
sable (Fr.) Shortbread from Normandy whose high sugar and butter
content account for its "sandy" texture; shaped into various forms
and thicknesses; pate sablee is similar to pate sucree.
sabzi (Ind.) Vegetables, sometimes stir-fried.
saccharin A noncaloric sugar substitute, far sweeter than sugar,
discovered over a century ago and now suspected to be a carcinogenic agent.
Sachertorte (Ger.) A rich chocolate cake containing many eggs, a layer of apricot jam, and chocolate icing. Created by Franz Sacher (of the Sacher Hotel in Vienna) for Prince Metternich in 1832.
sack The Elizabethan English word for sherry.
sacristain (Fr.) A strip of pate feuilletee sprinkled with cheese or chopped almonds and sugar, twisted into a spiral, and baked; so named for its resemblance to a corkscrew (the sacristain is responsible, among other things, for uncorking the communion wine).
saddle A cut of meat extending along the hindquarters from the end of the ribs to the legs on both sides.
safflower A thistle like plant, also called Mexican saffron, whose seeds yield oil and whose flowers yield an orange dye; the oil is light in flavor and high in polyunsaturates.
saffron The deep orange dried stigmas of a particular crocus, which must be gathered by hand, hence the spice's exorbitant price; since ancient times and in many cultures it has been used as a medicine, aphrodisiac, dye, and spice; it colors and flavors such classic dishes as risotto milanese, paella, bouillabaisse, and kulich.
Saft (Ger.) Juice, syrup, gravy.
sage A perennial herb with gray green leaves, used since ancient times for medicinal and culinary purposes; it is used especially, though with discretion, in cooking pork and goose.
Sage Derby (Brit.) A Derby cheese flavored and marbled with sage; aged nine months or more, it is flaky and mild and considered one of England's most distinctive cheeses; also called Derby .Sage.
sago A starch extracted from the stem of an Asian palm tree and used for thickening puddings and occasionally soups; similar to tapioca, sago is formed into pearl-like beads.
Sahne (Ger.) Cream; .Sahnenkase means cream cheese; Sahnenkuchen is a cream tart or cake.
saignant (Fr.) Rare, as in meat; literally, "bleeding."
saigneux (Fr.) Neck of veal or lamb.
Sailland, Edmond See Curnonsky.
Saint-Cloud, potage See potage Saint-Cloud.
Sainte-Maure (Fr.) A goats' milk cheese, uncooked and unpressed, from the town of the same name in Touraine, also Poitou; cured for three weeks, the cheese is log-shaped with a white soft smooth paste and a white bloomy rind.
Saint-Emilion A small town in the Dordogne Valley of Bordeaux celebrated for its many fine red wines especially the rich full chateaux wines. Saint-Emilion is also the varietal name of the Trebbiano grape in Cognac.
Saint-Estephe A wine commune at the northern tip of the Haut Medoc producing solid, full-bodied, robust wines, less delicate than some of its neighbors; aside from its classed growths, its crus bourgeois are also excellent.
Saint George's agaric A wild field mushroom, found in Europe in spring and autumn.
Saint-Germain (Fr. ) With fresh peas; potage Saint-Germain is a thick puree of fresh peas.
Saint-Honore, gateau See gateau Saint-Honore.
Saint-Jacques (Fr.) See coquille Saint-Jacques;
Saint John's bread See carob.
Saint-Julien A wine commune in the Haut-Medoc of Bordeaux, just south of Pauillac, overlooking the Gironde River; its red wines are of consistently fine quality, well-balanced and smooth.
Saint-Malo (Fr.) A classic white sauce for fish, flavored with mustard, shallots, and anchovy essence.
Saint-Marcellin (Fr.) An uncooked and unpressed cheese from the Isere Valley, made in farmhouses from goats' milk and in factories from mixed milk; ripened for two weeks, it is disc-shaped with a smooth paste and a delicate bloomy rind.
Saint-Nectaire (Fr.) An unpasteurized cows' milk cheese, uncooked and pressed, from the Auvergne; the flat rounds are cured up to two months for a dark pinkish rind and a creamy smooth interior, with good melting properties.
Saint-Paulin (Fr. ) An uncooked, pressed COWS' milk cheese made from whole pasteurized milk; it is large and round, with a smooth yellow rind and an even mild paste; a descendant of Port-du-Salut and similar to Port-Salut, .Saint-Paulin is widely made.
Saint-Pierre (Fr.) John Dory.
saisir (Fr.) To sear.
sakana (Jap. ) Fish.
sake (Jap. ) Rice wine, sweet or dry, usually drunk warm in small cups and also used for cooking; sake (without the accent mark) means salmon.
salamander A gas oven with a top element for quickly glazing or browning dishes, used in restaurant kitchens.
salambo (Fr.) An oval choux pastry filled with kirsch-flavored creme patissiere and glazed with caramel.
salami (It.) A sausage, infinitely variable in ingredients, seasoning, shape, and method, and long made in many countries other than Italy. Salami is usually made of pork meat and fat, sometimes with beef,, veal, or other meats, fairly highly seasoned, and cured as long as six months; its name derives from its being salted.
Salbei (Ger.) Sage.
salchicha (Sp.) Sausage.
sale (Fr. ) Salted or pickled; petit sale means salt pork; salaison means salting; the Italian word for salt is sale (no accent mark), the Spanish salt
Salisbury steak A patty of lean beef broiled and seasoned; devised by the nineteenth-century dietician Dr. James H. Salisbury to avoid supposedly unhealthy fermentation in the digestive tract.
Sally Lunn A light, sweet bun or bread supposedly named after the woman who first sold them in Bath, England, in the late eighteenth century.
saImagundi (Brit.) A mixed dish, really a salade composee, including greens, chopped meats, hard-boiled eggs, pickles, anchovies, onions, and perhaps other vegetables, all carefully arranged and dressed.
salmi A stew made from leftover or partially roasted feathered game, in a wine sauce; also spelled salmis.
salmon A noble fish that is spawned in fresh water before migrating to the sea, returning several years later to its original upstream waters to spawn, thus completing its life cycle. Salmon meat ranges from very pale to deep orange red, depending on species and habitat. In the United States, the king or chinook salmon is largest; the coho salmon is smaller and paler-fleshed; the sockeye turns deep red before spawning and is considered choice for canning. The northern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans provide feeding grounds for marine salmon, in addition to landlocked salmon. The firm, rich, flavorful meat-before spawning-lends itself to varied culinary preparations, simple or elaborate; cured salmon is a great delicacy; the specific types are separately entered.
salmonette (Sp.) Red mullet.
salmon trout See sea trout.
salpicao (Port.) Smoked ham roll.
salpicon (Fr.) One or more ingredients cooked separately, cut into fine dice, and bound with a sauce; often used as a filling or garnish, like mirepoix; allumettes cut across into small cubes make salpicon.
salsa (It. and Sp.) Sauce; this is also the general name for hot sauces in Mexican-American cooking; see also sugo.
salsa Mexicana crude (Mex.) Literally "fresh Mexican sauce," made of tomatoes, onions, and chilies (preferably serranos), chopped and mixed together with water; much used in Mexican cooking, with regional variations.
salsify A plant whose long white tapered root is eaten boiled or sauteed; also called oyster plant, its resemblance in flavor to oyster requires a vivid imagination; scorzonera, with its black-skinned root, is very similar.
saltare (It.) To saute, literally "to jump."
saltimbocca (It.) Veal scallop with a sage leaf and a thin slice of prosciutto laid on top, braised in butter and Marsala or white wine; this dish, whose name means "jump in the mouth," comes from Rome.
saltpeter, saltpetre Potassium nitrate; used in small quantities to preserve meat, saltpeter gives flavor and imparts a red color.
salvia (It.) Sage.
Salz (Ger.) Salt; Salzgeback is a salty biscuit, cracker, or pretzel.
sambal (Ind.) A very hot and spicy side dish, often a sauce, several of which accompany the main dish.
sambar (Ind.) Vegetables and lentils stewed with tamarind and spices.
samosa (Ind.) A pyramid-shaped savory pastry filled with vegetables or meat spiced with curry or chilies; from India and Pakistan.
samphire A plant that grows wild along the rocky Mediterranean and European coastline; its crisp leaves are eaten fresh in salads, cooked as a vegetable, and pickled; also called sea fennel and herbe de Saint Pierre (its name is a corruption of the latter).
Samso (Den.) A whole-milk cows' cheese from the island of Samso; cooked and pressed, the large, round, firm cheese is golden yellow with scattered holes and a nutty, mild, but not bland taste; widely used in Denmark.
sanbusak (Mid. E.) A tartlet of minced meat with pine nuts, onions, and cinnamon in a thin yeast dough.
Sancerre A town perched on a hill overlooking the Loire Valley in central France; its white wine is agreeably fresh and flinty, not unlike the Pouilly-Fume produced nearby, also from the Sauvignon Blanc grape.
San Gioveto A very good Italian red-wine grape planted widely in Tuscany; vinified especially for Chianti.
sangria (Sp.) Red wine, a little brandy, soda water, sugar, and sliced orange or lemon and other fruit; a cool refreshing drink for warm weather.
sangue, al (It.) Rare, as for steak.
San Pedro (Sp.) John Dory.
San Simon A cows' milk cheese from northwest Spain, semihard, rather bland, pear-shaped, and often smoked.
Saone A tributary of the Rhone River, joining it at Lyons, France, where the Beaujolais is said to be the third river.
sapsago See Schahzieger.
saracen corn See buckwheat.
Sarah Bernhardt (Fr.) With puree of foie gras.
sardine A young herring, pilchard, or sprat varying widely in species and treatment; usually brined, cooked, and canned in oil, but excellent cooked fresh.
sashimi (Jap. ) Literally "fresh slice," this really means raw fish
expertly sliced according to the particular variety and served with garnishes, condiments, and sauces.
sate (Indon.) Pieces of meat or seafood marinated in a spicy sauce, skewered, and grilled; usually served with a peanut sauce; also spelled satay.
sauce From the Latin word meaning salted, sauce includes all liquid seasonings for food and a few that are not liquid; Careme organized the many French sauces into families with four mother sauces: espagnole, veloute, allemande, and bechamel, with emulsified sauces, such as mayonnaise, forming the fifth group. Saucier means the chef responsible for sauces.
saucisse (Fr.) Fresh sausage; saucisson is a cured sausage, usually large; see also salami.
Sauerbraten (Ger.) Top round of beef marinated in red wine and vinegar, beer, or buttermilk, then braised, and sometimes served with dried fruit and nuts or other spicy or fruity accompaniments; sauer means sour.
Sauerkraut (Ger.) Shredded white cabbage pickled in brine and flavored with juniper berries-a classic accompaniment to a wide variety of German dishes.
sauge (Fr.) Sage.
saumon (Fr.) Salmon.
Saumur A French town and wine region on the south bank of the Loire River producing a variety of wines, including sparkling wines.
saunf (Ind.) Fennel, anise.
sauter (Fr.) To cook food quickly in butter or other hot fat, stirring to brown it evenly; sauter means literally "to jump"; a saute is a dish that has been cooked thus; a sauteuse is a shallow saute pan with sloping sides; a sautoir is a shallow pan with straight sides.
Sauternes A French village south of Bordeaux whose five surrounding townships produce the white dessert wine of the same name. Sauternes grapes are late-harvested for their high sugar content and noble rot, resulting in a very sweet but natural wine: fruity, intense, buttery, golden, and long-lived. Sauterne (without the final s) is altogether unconnected-a meaningless California term for white wine.
sauvage (Fr.) Wild, uncultivated, undomesticated.
Sauvignon Blanc An excellent white-wine varietal grape, widely planted in Graves, Sauternes (with the Semillon grape), in the Loire Valley (where it is known as Blanc Fume), and in California.
savarin (Fr.) A ring-shaped babe filled variously with creme Chantilly, creme patissiere, or fresh fruit; this pastry is named after Brillat Savarin.
Savoie, biscuit de See biscuit de Savoie.
savory Food that is not sweet; in Britain, where it is spelled savoury, it is the last dinner course after pudding, consisting of sharply flavored salty dishes intended to cleanse the palate for port-a custom favored by Victorian and Edwardian gentlemen. Savory is also an herb in the mint family known since Roman times and used traditionally with beans, meat, and poultry.
savoyarde, pommes a la (Fr.) Potatoes cooked a la dauphinoise, but with bouillon instead of milk; savoyarde generally means with cheese and potatoes.
saya-endo (Jap.) Snow pea.
Sbrinz (Switz.) A whole-milk cows' cheese made immediately after milking, cooked, and pressed; it is an ancient cheese, originally Swiss
but now made elsewhere. Hard, grainy, and yellow, Sbrinz is aged
six to twelve months or longer and mostly used as a flavorful grating
or cooking cheese or slivered into curls to accompany wine.
scald To heat a liquid, usually milk, to just below the boiling point,
when small bubbles form around the edge. For vegetables and fruit, to scald means to blanch.
scallion A young, undeveloped onion, sometimes called spring onion or green onion.
scallop A mollusk with an edible adductor muscle; in Europe, the pink roe is also eaten; also, a collop or escalope of meat-a thin slice possibly flattened by pounding.
scaloppina di vitello (It.) Veal scallop, properly cut across the grain from a single muscle, top round, SO that there arc no separations.
Scamorza (It.) A whole-milk cows' cheese, sometimes mixed with ewes' milk; this spun-curd cheese is similar to Mozzarella hut firmer; the cheeses are tied in pairs with string or raffia, hence their name, which means "beheaded" in southern Italian dialect.
scampi (It.) Saltwater crayfish found in the Adriatic and a favorite dish in Venice; pale in color and quite large, similar to, the Dublin Bay prawn, langoustine, and Norway lobster.
scarola (It.) Escarole.
Schabzieger (Switz. ) A skimmed-milk COWS' cheese, uncooked but hard, sometimes called sapsago in the U.S.; it is flavored with blue melilot clover to give it a pungent flavor and green color and is shaped in truncated cones.
Scharzhofberg A vineyard on a steep slope in Wiltingen on the Saar, whose Rieslings yield a very fine white wine with bouquet, depth, freshness, and austerity.
Schaum (Ger.) Froth, foam, mousse; .Schaumrollen are puff-pastry rolls filled with whipped cream; a Schaumschlager is a whisk or beater; Schaumwein is sparkling wine or Champagne.
Scheibe (Ger.) Slice.
Schiava A very fine red-wine grape extensively planted in the northern Italian Adage; also used as an eating grape.
Schinken (Ger.) Ham.
Schlachter (Ger.) Butcher; a Schlachtplatte is a plate of various cold meats and sausages.
Schlag, mit (Ger.) With cream; Schlagobers and Schlagsahne both mean whipped cream.
Schlegel (Ger.) Drumstick.
Schlesisches Himmelreich (Ger.) Salted pork belly and dried fruits stewed together and served with dumplings; literally, "Silesian heaven."
Schmalz (Ger.) Melted fat, grease, or lard; Schmalzgebackenes means food fried in lard or fat. In Yiddish, the word means rendered chicken fat.
Schmand (Ger.) Sour cream.
Schnapps (Ger.) A German version of akvavit.
Schnitte (Ger.) A cut or slice, chop or steak; Schnittlauch means chive.
schnitz, apple See apple schnitz.
Schnitzel (Ger.) A cutlet, slice, scallop, chop, steak; see also Wiener Schnitzel.
Schokolade (Ger.) Chocolate.
Schrotbrot (Ger.) Whole-wheat bread.
Schulter (Ger.) Shoulder.
Schwamm (Ger.) Mushroom.
Schwartelbraten (Ger.) Roast leg of pork cooked with sauerkraut and dumplings and served with a sour cream sauce; from Silesia.
Schwartzwalder Kirschtorte (Ger.) A rich chocolate cake made with cherries, Kirschwasser, and whipped cream on an almond pastry base; from the Black Forest.
Schwarzfisch (Ger.) Carp.
Schwarzsauer (Ger.) A stew of goose giblets and blood stewed with dried apples, prunes, and pears.
Schwarzwald (Ger.) Black Forest.
Schwein (Ger.) Pork; Schweinebauch means pork belly; .Schweinbraten means roast pork, a very popular dish cooked variously according to region.
scone (Scot. ) A traditional cake of white flour, sometimes mixed with whole-wheat flour, oatmeal, or barley. and combined with buttermilk and baking powder; the batter is usually shaped into a round and quartered or dropped onto a greased girdle (griddle) and turned; pronounced "skawn. "
score To make cuts, usually parallel, in the surface of food to help it cook evenly.
scorzonera See salsify.
Scotch broth (Scot.) Vegetable soup made with lamb and barley.
Scotch woodcock (Brit.) A savory of creamy scrambled eggs on toast
with anchovies.
scrapple Pork scraps, including meat, offal, and fat, boiled together,
chopped, seasoned, and thickened with buckwheat and cornmeal;
this Pennsylvania German specialty is derived from the Westphalian
scrod A marketing term for young cod under 2 1/2 pounds; schrod
(spelled with an h), indicates that the fish is young haddock.
scungilli (It.) See whelk.
sea bass See black sea bass.
sea cucumber See hai shen.
sea fennel See samphire.
seafood Edible saltwater fish or shellfish.
sea kale A perennial vegetable of the mustard family that grows
cultivated and wild, especially on the coasts of England, France, and northern Europe; the tender stalks are white and delicate and are cooked like asparagus.
sea moss See dulse.
sear To cook the surface of food, especially meat, over intense high
heat, in order to brown the exterior; searing does not "seal in" the
juices, as is commonly thought, but it does affect flavor.
sea slug See hai shen.
sea trout A brown trout in its marine cycle, from Atlantic waters; also called the salmon trout (but no relation to seatrout), its succulent pink flesh comes from its diet of crustaceans.
seatrout See weakfish.
sea urchin A spiny marine creature; the French relish it most cut in
half, the pink or orange roe scooped out and eaten raw with a little
lemon juice-a delicacy also eaten in Japan, where it is called unit
seaweed Marine vegetation, dried and processed, appreciated for its
texture, flavor, and high nutritional value, especially in the Orient.
Different kinds of seaweed, separately entered, are made into gelatin,
used in making soup stock and for wrapping sushi, drunk like tea,
or simply eaten as a vegetable.
sec (Fr. ) A wine term meaning dry, as opposed to .sweet; the exception
is in describing Champagne, where sec has come to mean sweet; the
feminine is seche. The Italian word is secco, the Spanish seco.
sedano (It.) Celery.
sediment The solid deposit that a wine naturally leaves in the bottle
as it ages. In bottles of red wine, especially big or old ones, the
sediment should be allowed to settle and then left behind when the
wine is decanted; in white wines, the clear crystals are tasteless and
harmless cream of tartar.
Seezunge (Ger.) Sole.
sel (Fr.) Salt.
selchen (Ger.) To smoke or cure; Selchfleisch is smoked meat, often
pork loin.
self-rising flour White flour to which baking powder (and salt) has
already been added for convenience; used, especially in Britain, for
making cakes, biscuits, and other baked goods; not appropriate for
doughs that use yeast or eggs as leavening or that do not rise at all.
selle (Fr.) Saddle.
Sellerie (Ger.) Celery.
Seltzer water Naturally effervescent mineral water, or water made to
resemble it, from the German village of Selters near Wiesbaden.
sem (Ind.) Green beans.
semifreddo (It.) A chilled or frozen mousse like dessert, including
cream, custard, cake, and fruit; the Spanish version is semifrio.
semifrees A drupe, stone fruit, it which the seed is not quite free of the meat of the fruit unlike a freestone(free of meat) or a clingstone (clings to the meat).
semilla (Sp.) Seed.
Semillon An exceptional white grape variety extensively planted in
southwestern France and Australia, also grown in California. Often
combined with Sauvignon Blanc, it is used for Sauternes and
Graves. Like the Riesling grape, it is subject, fortunately, to noble rot.
Semmel (Ger.) Breakfast roll; a Semmelkloss is a bread dumpling.
semolina The coarsely milled endosperm of wheat or other flour, from
which the bran and germ have been removed; durum semolina,
made from a special kind of hard wheat, is excellent for (commercial)
pasta because it has few loose starch granules to soften the dough;
other types of semolina are good for gnocchi and couscous.
Senf (Ger.) Mustard.
Sercial A type of Madeira, pale and dry; an excellent aperitif wine
comparable to a fino sherry, named after the white grape variety.
Serra (Port.) A ewes' milk cheese, sometimes combined with goats'
milk, from the mountainous region of Portugal called Serra da Estrela;
the disc-shaped cheese is creamy white with a runny center and
yellow rind, but with aging becomes pungent, hard, and crumbly.
serrano (Mex.) A very hot green chili pepper, about 1 1/2 inches long
and 2 inch wide; usually cooked fresh but also available pickled and
serviette (Fr. ) Napkin; food served in a folded napkin is a la serviette.
sesame A plant native to Indonesia and East Africa and known to the
ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans; in Middle Eastern cooking
sesame seeds are used raw, either for oil or tahini, while in Far
Eastern cooking they are first roasted, yielding a darker, stronger
taste, and used mostly for flavoring, rather than frying.
sesos (Sp.) Brains.
seviche (Sp.) Raw fish or shellfish marinated in citrus juice
(usually lime) and seasonings but not cooked by heat; also spelled cebiche and often confused with escabeche.
Seville orange A bitter orange with a thin skin; the skin is used widely in making marmalade.
sfogliata (It.) Puff pastry.
sgombro (It.) Mackerel.
shabu-shabu (Jap. ) Meat and vegetables cooked at table in stock,
served with a seasoned sesame sauce; not unlike sukiyaki.
shad A member of the herring family; though there are numerous
species, American shad alone is Alosa sapidissima-"shad most de-
licious." This fish migrates up rivers on the eastern coast of the United States for spawning, a welcome harbinger each spring. Shad flesh has a distinctive, rich, sweet flavor, and removing the rows of tiny bones increases the pleasure of eating it. The roe is a great delicacy, poached, broiled, or sauteed to enhance its nutty flavor, often complemented with bacon and lemon.
shaddock See pomelo.
shallot A variety of the onion family whose bulbs form small clusters;
the French favor its subtle, delicate taste and often use it in their
shandy (Brit.) Beer mixed with lemonade-a refreshing summer drink;
shandygaff is beer with ginger beer.
shao (Chin.) Braising.
sharbat (Ind.) A fruit punch or flavored drink, from which the word
sherbet is derived.
shark Although prolific and similar to swordfish in flavor and texture,
shark (especially mako and dogfish) is not particularly popular in the
United States, probably because of its voracious reputation; its dense,
delicate flesh takes well to baking, broiling, and marinating.
shark's fin (Chin.) See yu chit
she-crab soup A springtime soup from South Carolina, made with the
meat and roe from female blue crabs, mixed with cream and flavored
with Worcestershire sauce and sherry.
shellfish Any kind of seafood with a shell, including mollusks and
shell steak A cut of beef from the strip loin; a boneless and tender
shepherd's pie (Brit.) Cooked meat, cubed or ground. in a gravy and
covered with a layer of mashed potatoes.
shepherd's purse A wild green in the mustard family. eaten in Europe.
sherbet A frozen dessert much like water ice, made with sweetened
fruit juice or puree or another flavoring, such as coffee or liqueur,
but including beaten egg white or Italian meringue to keep ice
crystals from forming during freezing; sorbet is the French word for
sherry A fortified blended wine, strictly speaking from a specified area around the city of Jerez in southern Spain, from whose name the
anglicized word "sherry" comes. The young wine, from several grape
varieties, is kept in oak casks where it is fortified, worked on by flor
yeasts, blended in soleras, and perhaps sweetened and colored with
a dose of reserve sherry into several different categories such as fino,
amontillado, and oloroso. In California and other countries the
term sherry is used more loosely.
shiitake (Jap.) An Oriental mushroom, dark brown with an earthy
flavor, available both fresh and dried; cultivated widely in the Orient
and now also in the United States; the woody stem is usually discarded;
sometimes called golden oak mushroom in the U.S.
shimofuri (Jap.) To blanch.
shio (Jap.) Salt.
ship biscuit See hardtack.
shirataki (Jap.) Translucent noodles made from konnyaku.
shirred eggs Eggs cooked in a shallow dish, either on the stove or in
the oven, perhaps with a sauce.
shiru, shirumono (Jap.) Soup of all kinds, including thick and thin
(suimono means thin soup).
shoga (Jap.) Fresh ginger root.
shoofly pie A pie with a molasses and brown sugar filling, of
Pennsylvania German origin; supposedly so sweet that you have to shoo away the flies.
shortbread (Scot.) A rich pastry made from butter, flour, and sugar
mixed together, shaped in round tins, and baked until golden; traditional in Scotland for New Year's Day.
shortening Any fat, usually butter, lard, or vegetable fat, used in baking; shortening lends its name to rich pastries such as shortbread, shortcake, short crust, anal shortening bread.
short loin A Cut of beef from the hindquarter, between the rib and
sirloin, comprising the porterhouse, T-bone, and club steak.
shorva (Ind.)Soup.
shoya (Jap.) Soy sauce.
shred To cut into narrow strips.
shrimp A small decapod crustacean of many species, usually marine-
a miniature version of the lobster; the family includes the tiny shrimp
from cold northern waters, the rock shrimp off the warmer southeastern
American coastlines, and the saltwater crayfish. Commercially marketed
shrimp are sorted-and priced-by size and usually flash-frozen on
board immediately after they are caught, either peeled or not, raw
or cooked; when thawed, shrimp should have a resilient texture and
fresh smell. Shrimp are cooked in innumerable ways around the world
from earthy peasant dishes to haute cuisine creations.
shrub A fruit drink, sometimes alcoholic-a distant relative of the fruit sherbet.
shuan yang rou (Chin.) Mongolian hot pot: various pieces of seafood,
poultry, and meat cooked individually in a communal pot of simmering
stock that is placed in the middle of the table; it is served with sauces, and the rich stock is consumed afterward; a kind of Chinese fondue.
sild, sill (Scand.) Herring.
silverside (Brit.) A cut of beef from the crown of the rump.
simmer To cook food in liquid just below the boiling point.
Simmons, Amelia The author of American Cookery, published in Hart-
ford, Connecticut, in 1796; it was the first cookbook written by an
American for Americans using native produce and methods.
Simon, Andre Louis (1877 - 1970) A French-born wine connoisseur
and gastronome who spent his adult life in London writing about his
enthusiasms; he also formed a book collection of considerable dis-
tinction and founded the Wine and Food Society.
singer (Fr.) To sprinkle or dust, as with flour or sugar.
Single Gloucester (Brit.) A nearly extinct cheese made from part
skimmed and part whole milk of the rare Gloucester breed (now
being revived); half as large as Double Gloucester and milder in
sippet A small piece of bread to dip in soup; a croute.
sirloin A cut of beef from the hindquarter, between the short loin and
sirloin tip See round.
strop a trente (Fr.) See heavy syrup.
skate A diamond-shaped relative of the shark, often very large, with
edible wings that are usually skinned and trimmed before cooking;
skate is most often poached, fried, or sauteed, and in classic French
cuisine, served with beurre noir; also called ray.
skim To remove the top layer from a liquid, as cream from milk or
scum from stock.
skim milk, skimmed milk Milk with nearly all of its cream removed
by centrifugal force, leaving .5 percent butterfat; low-fat milk, slightly richer, contains 1 percent butterfat. 'I he skimming also removes vitamins A, D, E, and K, so these nutrients are usually added.
slivovitz Plum brandy from Eastern Europe, dry and slightly bitter.
sloe The fruit of the blackthorn-a wild European plum small, dark,
and astringent; used for flavoring sloe gin and, when touched by frost,
for preserves.
slump A dessert of cooked fruit baked with a dumpling like top, served
with cream; popular in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century
America. Louisa May Alcott named her home in Concord, Massachusetts, "Apple
smelt A small silvery fish, called sparring in Britain, that migrates
between fresh- and saltwater unless landlocked; eaten whole or gutted, most often floured and fried.
smetana (Russ.) Sour cream.
smitane (Fr.) A classic sauce of chopped onions sauteed in butter,
sour cream added, cooked, strained, and flavored with lemon.
Smithfield ham Ham from Virginia hogs fattened on peanuts. It is cured, salted, smoked, and aged, but not cooked; from the town of the same name.
smoke To cure meat over burning wood chips by means of the steady
low heat and chemical components in smoke; there are many variations
of this prehistoric technique, often used in combination with salt
smorgasbord (Swed.) A profusely varied buffet of open sandwiches,
pickled fish, meats, vegetables, eggs, and salads served in Scandinavian
countries as hors d'oeuvres or as the meal itself.
smorrebrod (Den.) Literally "buttered bread," an open-faced sandwich
made with all kinds of fish, meat, and vegetable fillings with various
sauces, artfully presented.
smothered Braised; in southern cooking, meat-often chicken-that
is cooked in a closed pot with a gravy or sauce.
snail A land-dwelling gastropod mollusk appreciated by gastronomes
since the Romans; usually canned already prepared for the table,
escargots (in French) are often served a la bourguignonne-fattened
on Burgundian grape leaves and bathed in a rich garlic and parsley
butter sauce-as well as in other ways.
snap bean String bean.
snow eggs Meringue shaped like eggs with spoons, poached in sweetened
milk, drained, and served with custard sauce made from the milk; a
classic dessert known in French as oeufs a la neige.
snow peas Peas that are undeveloped and have thin, flat pods; bred to
be eaten whole, as their French name mange-tout ("eat all" ) implies;
much used in Chinese cookery.
Soave An Italian white wine produced around Verona, dry, pale, fresh,
and clean. This wine, which is sold in distinctive tall green bottles,
is best drunk young.
soba (Jap.) Buckwheat noodle.
sockeye salmon See salmon.
soda See baking soda.
sodium bicarbonate See baking soda.
soffrito (It.) See battuto and sofrito.
sofrito (Sp.) A mixture of chopped vegetables-tomatoes, onions, garlic,
and other herbs-cooked together in olive oil, perhaps with diced
sweet peppers, ham, and chorizo, or other flavorings; the sofrito,
which can be made ahead, is a base for many sauces and stews. The
Italian soffrito, made from cooking the battuto, is essentially the
same thing.
soft-ball stage Sugar syrup that has reached a temperature of 234-
239 F. ( 113-115 C. ) and that forms a soft ball between the fingertips when immersed in cold water.
soft-crack stage Sugar syrup that has reached a temperature of 270-
290 F. (135 - 140 C.) and that forms brittle threads between the fin-
gertips when immersed in cold water.
soft-shell crab A blue crab caught while molting, when its new shell
is so thin that it is edible.
sogliola (It.) Sole.
sole A flatfish family that includes the flounder and many other varieties (see under flounder); Dover sole is the common sole of European waters, whose white and delicate but firm flesh has inspired many culinary creations. Although there are few true soles in the U.S., many types of flounder are called sole to make them more marketable.
solera (Sp.) The method by which sherry and other fortified wines
are blended and matured to achieve consistency.
sole Veronique (Fr.) Sole poached in white wine and served with
veloute sauce, garnished with skinned and seeded white grapes.
solyanka (Russ.) Boiled freshwater fish with cucumbers, onions, olives, vinegar, sour cream, and dill; also made with meat.
sommelier (Fr.) Wine steward, wine waiter.
Sonoma A California wine-producing county just north of San Francisco
and east of the Napa Valley; various wines are grown here, especially
sonth (Ind.)Dried ground ginger.
sooji (Ind.) Semolina, farina.
sookha afar (Ind.) Coriander seeds.
sopa (Sp.) Soup.
sopari (Ind.) Betel nut.
sope (Mex.) A small round of tortilla dough cooked and filled with
a savory stuffing; sopes can be eaten as a first course or appetizer.
Also called garnacha or picada
sorbet (Fr.) Sherbet.
sorghum A grain similar to millet and used in Asia and Africa for
porridge, flour, beer, and molasses, but in the United States mostly
for forage; it is a drought-resistant staple crop in East Africa, where
it originated, and in Asia; an African bread called durra flat because
sorghum has no gluten, is made from a variety of the grain.
sorrel A leafy green plant similar to spinach, whose name, derived
from the German word for "sour," is appropriate; especially popular in
France, this lemony-tasting green is used in salads or cooked for
purees, soups, and sauces, often to complement fish; of the many
varieties, wild sorrel is highest in oxalic acid and is sometimes called
lemon grass.
Sosse (Ger.) Sauce.
Soubise (Fr.) Chopped onions sauteed in butter with bechamel and
strained; Soubise can also be a puree of onions and rice finished with
butter and cream-a classic sauce.
Souchong A black tea from India or Ceylon with large, coarse leaves
that make a pale but pungent brew; Lapsang Souchong is a variety
with a smoky, dark taste.
souffle (Fr.) A sweet or savory pudding made with a white sauce, basic flavoring ingredients, egg yolks, and beaten whites, which cause it to puff up during baking; souffle means blown or puffed up.
soupe (Fr.) A hearty and robust peasant soup, usually based on veg-
etables; not to be confused with consomme or potage.
Soursop: Larger than the other types of custard apples, the soursop (Annona muricata) can weigh up to eight ounces. The thin skin has rows of dark-green, curved spines and the white pulp has a refreshing, sour-sweet flavor, more acidic than the other annona fruits.
sourdough Dough for various baked goods, especially bread, leavened
with a fermented starter culture kept from a previous baking rather
than with fresh yeast.
sous chef (Fr.) Second chef; literally, "under chef."
soused Pickled in brine or vinegar; usually used to describe fish.
soutirage (Fr.) Racking.
souvlakia (Gr.) Meat marinated in olive oil, lemon juice, and herbs, then skewered and grilled.
soybean A bean extremely important to Asia for its nutritive value (very high in minerals and protein ) and for its uses in various forms (fresh, dry, sprouted, and processed in innumerable ways). The seeds yield soy milk, flour, and oil (highly unsaturated), all of which can be processed into many useful products. See also tofu.
soybean curd See' tofu.
Soyer, Alexis ( 1809-1858 ) A French chef who gained renown in
England through his food served at the Reform Club in London, his books, and his philanthropic efforts in Ireland and the Crimea. He introduced the gas oven, a great improvement over coal.
soy milk A nutritious vegetable product made from dried soybeans
which are soaked in water, crushed. and boiled; various other products, such as soy cheese, made when a coagulant forms curds and whey from the milk, come from soy milk.
soy sauce A condiment widely used in Chinese and Japanese cooking
(where it is known as shoya), made from naturally fermented soy-
beans and flour; some commercial brands, however, are chemically
fermented and contain additives that attempt to make up for lost
color, flavor, and body; Chinese soy sauce (jiang you) comes in light, medium, and dark grades, depending on their use; Japanese soy sauce is lighter, sweeter, and less salty than Chinese soy sauce. (Note: some types of soy sauce are separately entered.)
spaghettini (It.) Thin spaghetti.
spanakopita (Gr.) Spinach pie wrapped in phyllo dough.
Spanferkel (Ger.) Suckling pig.
Spanische Windtorte (Aus. ) A meringue shell-not unlike the French
vacherin-elaborately decorated with swirls, filled with berries, and served with whipped cream.
spareribs A cut of pork from the breast section, usually broiled.
Spargel (Ger.) Asparagus; the white blanched asparagus are favored
in Germany, rather than the green, and in spring much is made of
their season.
sparring See smelt.
spatlese (Ger.) A wine term meaning late-picked-after the regular
harvest, when these riper grapes will yield a bigger, sweeter, natural wine (which is also more expensive).
Spatzle (Ger.) Noodle or dumpling from Swabia, small and handmade,
usually pressed through a colander.
Speck (Ger.) Bacon, lard.
spelt A type of wheat eaten as food in ancient times hut now used
mostly as livestock fodder.
Spencer steak See Delmonico.
spezie (It.) Spices.
spezzatino (It.) Stew; literally, "cut into little pieces."
Spickgans (Ger.) Smoked goose, usually the breast-a great delicacy.
spiedo (It.) Spit for roasting meat; spiedino means skewer or brochette.
Spiegelei (Ger.) Fried egg.
Spiess (Ger.) Skewer; .Spiessbraten is meat roasted on a spit.
split pea A pea of several varieties, generally green or yellow, that is dried and hulled; mostly used for soup and, in Britain, for "pease" pudding or porridge.
sponge cake A cake whose texture is lightened with separately beaten egg whites hut little or no shortening; it contains some sugar and flour hut no leavening other than eggs.
spoom See spume.
spoon bread A moist and unsweetened southern American dish made
from stone ground white cornmeal and eggs, eaten at various meals:
although called "bread," the consistency of spoon bread is more like that of pudding; also called batter bread.
spotted click, spotted dog (Brit.) A steamed suet pudding with
raisins, a traditional nursery food.
sprat See brisling.
Springerle (Ger.) Cookies, pale yellow and anise-flavored, sometimes molded into very large and elaborate figures; traditional for Christmas and originally from Swabia.
spring-form pan A cake pan whose bottom is removed by means of a
spring or hinge, rather than by inverting the cake.
spring onion See scallion.
spring roll See chun juan.
spritzig (Ger.) Sparkling, effervescent, as for wine.
sprout A dried bean that, with proper moisture and warmth, germinates; mung, alfalfa, and soybeans are favorite varieties for sprouting, and they can be eaten raw or lightly cooked.
spume (It.) A fruit or water ice with Italian meringue folded in
halfway through the freezing process, as in a sherbet. Spuma means
foam, froth, or mousse. .Spumone is a mousselike ice cream lightened with whipped cream or beaten egg whites.
spumante (It.) Sparkling, as for wine.
squab A young pigeon about to leave the nest. Squabs are full-grown
at about four weeks but still unfledged; most squabs are domesticated and their meat is tender, all dark, but not gamy.
squid A marine mollusk with a long body and ten arms, highly nutritious and with little waste; most appreciated by Mediterranean and Oriental cultures; squid can be cut into diamonds or rings or stuffed whole to be cooked in various ways, sometimes in sauces flavored and colored with its own ink.
Stachelbeere (Ger.) Gooseberry.
Stampfkartoffeln (Ger.) Mashed potatoes.
Stange (Ger.) Stick; .Stangen and Stangerl are stick-shaped pastries, sweet or savory; .Stangenspargel means asparagus spears.
star anise, Chinese anise (Chin.) See ba jiao. star fruit See carambola.
steak and kidney pudding (Brit.) Beef and kidney pieces, perhaps
flavored with onions, mushrooms, and oysters, steamed in a suet crust (or baked for steak and kidney pie).
steam To cook by steam heat, thus preserving most of the food's nutrients; food can be stcamcd over boiling water or, wrapped in leaves, foil, or other protection, directly in hot coals or boiling water.
steep To soak or infuse in liquid.
Steinberg A famous old vineyard in the Rheingau, located in the Kloster Eberbach monastery and created in the twelfth century by the same Cistercian monk who established the Clos de Vougeot in Burgundy; its several wines have exceptional body, power, and depth.
Steinbutt (Ger.) Turbot.
Steinpilz (Ger.) Cepe or boletus mushroom.
stew To cook food slowly in a small amount of liquid at low heat in a closed container in order to make the food-usually meat-tender and allow the flavors to mingle.
Stilton (Brit.) An uncooked cows' milk cheese injected with the Penicillium roqueforti mold and aged for about six months to make one of the world's great blue cheeses. Stilton is made in Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Leicestershire in large cylinders with a brownish crust. The paste is creamy with a variable blue green veining, moist and slightly crumbly, but not dry or salty. There is also a White Stilton.
stir-fry (Chin.) To cook quickly in a small amount of very hot fat, constantly stirring, to give the food a crisp yet tender texture; a method much used in Chinese cooking with the wok.
stock Broth in which meat, game, poultry, fish, or vegetables have been cooked; stock is usually seasoned, strained, degreased, concentrated, and used as the foundation for soups and sauces-what the French call fond de cuisine; meat stock usually contains gelatin, from veal and other bones, and can be white or brown.
Stollen (Ger.) Fruit bread filled with various dried fruits, shaped in a long loaf, and sprinkled with confectioners' sugar; traditional for Christmas and associated with Dresden.
stone crab A variety of crab found off the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coastlines, especially Florida, with very fine meat mostly from the claws; sold already cooked.
stone fruit, drupe A type of deciduous fruit whose fruit is centered around a single seed, such as an apricot, cherry, plum or peach, unlike a multi-seed deciduous fruit.
Stor (Ger.) Sturgeon.
stout (Brit.) Ale whose malt has been toasted before brewing to produce darker color, stronger flavor, and higher alcoholic content.
stoved (Scot.) Simmered on top of the stove, as in etouffer.
Stracchino (It.) An uncooked, unpressed cows' milk cheese, originally unpasteurized but now generally pasteurized, from Lombardy; this fresh, rind less cheese is buttery, smooth, and delicate. Stracchino d i Gorgonzola is the original name of Gorgonzola. Stracchino cheeses were originally made with milk from cows still tired- stracche in the Lombardian dialect-from their long descent from the Alps.
stracciatella (It.) Light chicken or beef stock thickened with a paste of egg, cheese, and semolina.
stracotto (It.) Pot roast or braised meat.
strasbourgeoise, a la (Fr.) Garnished with sauerkraut, small pieces of bacon, and sauteed slices of goose liver-a classic garnish.
strawberries Romanoff (Fr.) Strawberries macerated in orange-flavored liqueur and garnished with creme Chantilly.
straw mushroom A wild mushroom cultivated in the Orient on rice straw and available in the west either canned or dried; it is small with a long thin stem and conical tan cap.
Streusel (Ger.) A sprinkling, as of sugar or bread crumbs; Streuselkuchen is a yeast cake topped with a cinnamon-sugar crumble.
striped bass A western Atlantic fish that migrates from the sea to spawn in freshwater streams in autumn; its size varies greatly, but smaller fish taste better; the flesh of the striped bass is white, flaky, and firm, with a delicate flavor, making it a popular table fish that is very versatile in cooking.
strip loin A cut of beef from the top of the short loin, tender and
boneless, often cut into steaks.
Strudel (Ger.) Very thin pastry sheets with a sweet or savory filling, rolled up and baked; from Bavaria.
Stuck (Ger.) Piece, portion.
stufa (It.) Stove; stufato means stew.
sturgeon A marine fish that spawns in rivers, sometimes growing to
great age and size; its flesh is white, rich, firm, and tight in texture-almost like meat-taking well to smoking or pickling; the roe, ofcourse, is a great delicacy.
su (Jap.) Rice vinegar.
suan mei jiang (Chin.) Duck sauce, a Cantonese dipping sauce (literally, "plum sauce") traditionally served with duck or goose and used more widely in American-Chinese cooking; it is a thick sweet-and-sour sauce made of plums, apricots, vinegar, and sugar.
subric (Fr.) A small ball of vegetable or other food, fried.
succotash A dish of dried beans and corn derived from the Naragansett
Indians' msickquatash Early versions included poultry and meat as
well as other vegetables, and succotash today need not be reduced
to lima beans and corn kernels.
sucker See buffalo fish.
sucre (Fr.) Sugar; sucre file is spun sugar.
suedoise (Fr.) Cold "Swedish" sauce of mayonnaise flavored with
apple puree and grated horseradish-a classic sauce.
suet: Solid lumps of fat around the loins and kidneys of beef, lamb, andother animals, used for making pastry, puddings, and tallow.
sugar apple: Often regarded as the true custard apple. this fruit (Annona squamosa), is sweeter than the cherimoya. It has a yellowish-green skin, which is made up of strange fleshy scales. When fully ripe, the scales burst open to reveal a creamy pulp, which is extremely sweet and slightly grainy.
sugar cane A tall grass of South Pacific origin from which raw sugar was first extracted in India around 500 B.C. refine the sucrose, the ten-to-twelve-month-old stalks are cut and pressed for their juice which is then clarified, reduced, spun (to separate the sugar crystals from the molasses and other impurities), washed, and uniformly crystallized.
sugaring See chaptalization.
sugo (It.) Sauce; sugo de came is gravy. When speaking of pasta sauce, sugo rather than salsa is the correct term. The plural is sughi
suimono (Jap.) Clear soup.
sukiyaki (Jap.) Thinly sliced beef and a variety of vegetables cooked
in a pot with suet at the table, seasoned, and served with ceremony;
a relatively recent dish in Japanese cuisine.
sulphiting The addition of sulphur to must in order to delay or prevent fermentation-not necessarily an abuse in wine-making.
sultana A golden raisin made from sweet, white, seedless grapes
originally grown in Smyrna, Turkey and named after the Turkish sultan; see also currant.
Sulz (Ger.) Aspic or meat in aspic, such as head cheese.
summer pudding (Brit.) Fresh raspberries and red currants stewed
together gently, sweetened, pressed in a bread-lined bowl overnight,
then turned out and served with cream; the result, though from
humble origins, is exquisite.
sun (Chin.) Bamboo shoots.
sunflower A large heliotropic flower whose seeds are roasted and eaten
like nuts and whose oil, extracted from the seeds, is light in flavor
and polyunsaturated.
sunomono (Jap.) Green beans.
superfine sugar Very fine sugar crystals that dissolve quickly in liquid.
supreme de volaille (Fr.) The breast and wing fillet of a young chicken or other bird, lightly floured and sauteed in butter. Sauce supreme is a reduced chicken veloute with cream.
surimi (Jap.) Imitation crab meat made from pollock or other fish; it
is processed in sheets, rolled up, and colored to resemble crab legs;
sometimes called seafood legs or other euphemisms.
sushi (Jap.) Vinegared rice formed into fingers or rounds, seasoned
with wasabi or other spices, perhaps rolled in seaweed, and garnished
with raw seafood or fish and sometimes a vegetable; in Japan, sushi
is eaten as a meal; in the United States, it is also eaten as an appetizer.
susse (Ger.) Sweet; susse Speisen are sweet dishes or desserts.
Suzette, crepes See crepes Suzette.
sweat To cook in a little fat over very low heat in a covered pot, so
that the food exudes some of its juice without browning; used especially
with vegetables.
swede (Brit.) A rutabaga or Swedish turnip.
sweet bean sauce (Chin.) See tien mien jiang.
sweet bell pepper See pepper (sweet bell).
sweetbreads The thymus gland of a calf, sheep, or pig, located in the
throat and chest of young animals. Veal .sweetbreads arc considered
the best, pork inferior; the chest or heart .sweetbread is larger and
therefore the better of the pair. .Sweetbreads are highly perishable
and should be used quickly. They are soaked in acidulated water
to whiten the tissue, blanched to firm them, and the membranes
are trimmed before further cooking.
sweet cicely See cicely.
sweet marjoram See marjoram.
sweet potato A root vegetable indigenous to Central America and brought by Columbus to the Old World; high in sugar, nutrients, and calories, it is often confused with the yam, especially in the U.S.; the sweet potato has a reddish skin, a texture like the regular potato, and an affinity for similar preparations.
Swiss cheese American-made (or foreign-made) Emmental.
Swiss roll (Brit.) Jelly roll.
swordfish A large marine fish whose dense white meat is marketed in steaks or chunks; because of its expense, mako shark is sometimes substituted; excellent for baking or broiling.
syllabub (Brit.) An old-fashioned drink made of rich milk or whipped cream with wine, beer, or cider, and flavored with sugar and spices; variously spelled; similar to posses and eggnog.
Sylvaner A very good white wine grape, more productive but less distinguished than the Riesling; extensively cultivated in Germany, Austria, Alsace, and also grown in Switzerland, the Italian Tirol, California, and Chile.
Syrah A distinguished red-wine grape variety yielding a long-lived, deep red wine; used for Hermitage and (with others) Chateauneuf-du-Pape grown in the Rhone area as well as in California, Australia, and South Africa.
syrup, heavy See heavy syrup.

~ T ~

A fiery hot commercial sauce made of red chili peppers, vinegar, and salt, aged in oak barrels and bottled; made since the Civil War in Cajun Louisiana.
tabbouleh (Leb.) Bulghur mixed with chopped tomatoes, onion, mint, parsley, olive oil, and lemon juice, eaten as a salad with lettuce leaves.
tacchino (It.) Turkey.
Tache, La A small vineyard in the Vosne-Romanee that produces an outstanding red Burgundy: rich, velvety, and full-bodied.
taco (Mex.) A tortilla filled with shredded meat and sauce, rolled or folded, and sometimes fried; the word literally means "snack."
Tafelspitz (Aus.) Top round of beef boiled and accompanied with root vegetables, horseradish, and sauces-from Vienna.
taffy Candy made from sugar or molasses cooked down, usually with butter, nuts, and other flavorings. American taffy, especially saltwater taffy, tends to be soft and chewy, while British taffy (called toffee) is brittle.
tagliatelle (It.) Long thin flat strips of egg pasta; this is the Florentine and northern name for fettucine, slightly wider and flatter. Ragu bolognese is the classic sauce for tagliatelle.
tagliolini, tagliarini (It.) Very thin noodles, but not as thin as capelli d'angelo; often used in soups.
tahini (Mid. E.) A paste of crushed raw sesame seeds used as the basis
of many Arab dishes such as halvah, hummus, and babe ghanoush;
spelled variously.
takenoko (Jap.) Bamboo shoots.
tale (Ind.) Deep-fried.
Taleggio (It.) An uncooked, unpressed, whole, unpasteurized cows'
milk cheese from Lombardy; made in squares with an orange rind
and a delicate buttery paste. There is also a cooked-curd variety made
from pasteurized milk, with a gray rind. Taleggio is a stracchino
Talleyrand (Fr.) A classic garnish of macaroni mixed with butter and
cheese, truffle julienne, and diced foie gras-for sweetbreads and
tamago (Jap. ) Egg.
tamale (Mex.) Corn dough (tamal) made with lard, filled with a savory
stuffing, wrapped up in a piece of corn husk, and steamed; the filling
can be savory or sweet; tamales are traditionally for holidays and
special occasions, and their history is ancient.
tamari (Jap. ) Dark, thick sauce, similar to soy sauce, also made from
soybeans; used primarily as a dipping sauce or in a basting sauce.
tamarind The pod or fruit of a large tropical tree native to India; when fresh, its pulp is white, crisp, and sweet-sour, but when dried it turns brown and very sour; in Indian cooking it is used in curries, chutneys, pickling fish, sauces, and refreshing drinks.
tamatar (Ind.)Tomato.
tamis (Fr.) Sieve, sifter, strainer; the Spanish word is tamiz. Tamiser
in French means to strain through a sieve or tammy cloth.
tampon (Fr.) A bed of rice or vegetables.
tandoor (Ind.) A clay oven, usually recessed in the ground; tandoori,
the food roasted in it at high temperatures, is first marinated in yogurt and spices.
tang (Chin.) Soup.
tangelo A hybrid citrus fruit-a cross between a grapefruit and a
tangerine; there are several varieties, Minneola considered by many to be the best of them; see also ugli fruit.
tannin A chemical compound in the stems and seeds of grapes that
imparts a characteristic astringency and puckery quality to wine;
tannin is pronounced in young red wines, especially good claret, but
gives them longevity.
tansy An herb with a rather bitter flavor, once popular in England but
now largely ignored; a tansy pudding used to be traditional for Easter.
tapes (Sp.) Appetizers served in Spanish bars with cocktails, in great
variety and profusion.
tapenade (Fr.) A puree of capers, anchovies, black olives, garlic, and
perhaps tuna and other foods, thinned to a paste with olive oil; from
tapioca A starch extracted from the tuberous root of the cassava (yucca) or manioc plant, native to tropical and subtropical America where Indians once ate it as a bread. Tapioca, almost pure starch-easily digestible and nutritious, is made into flour and "pearls," which are used for thickening soups and for puddings. It has become a staple in India and Indochina.
taramasalata (Gr.) Pink fish roe, usually gray mullet or carp, pureed
with bread that has been moistened with a little milk, olive oil, lemon
juice, and garlic; served with crusty bread.
taro A tropical and subtropical plant valuable for its spinach like leaves, asparagus like stalks, and potato like root. Its high starch content makes it an important staple in Polynesia, Africa, and Asia. In the Caribbean, its leaves are made into a spicy stew called callaloo.
tarragon An herb in the daisy family used widely in French cooking; it
is an essential in the bouquet garni, in bearnaise sauce, and chicken
a l'estragon, and is one of the fines herbes.
tart A sweet or savory pie, usually with no top crust; a flan. A tartlet is a small individual tart.
tartare (Fr.) Sauce tartare is mayonnaise with hard-boiled egg yolks
and garnished with finely chopped onions and chives; boeuf a la
tartare is chopped lean beef served with capers, chopped onions,
and parsley, with a raw egg.
tarte, tartelette (Fr.) Tart, tartlet; tartine means a slice of bread spread with butter or jam, also a small tart. The Spanish words are tartaand tartaleta
tarte des demoiselles Tatin (Fr.) An apple tart devised by the Tatin
sisters in their restaurant near Orleans, baked upside down; the bottom
of the pan is buttered and strewn with sugar, covered with sliced
apples, then topped with a pastry crust; during baking the sugar on
the bottom caramelizes, and the finished tarte is turned out and
tartufo (It.) Truffle.
tasse (Fr., Ger.) Cup; the Spanish word is taza
Tatin, tarte des demoiselles See tarte des demoiselles Tatin.
Tavel A rose wine from the Rhone Valley near Avignon-flavorful,
strong, and celebrated.
T-bone steak A cut of beef from the loin, very similar to the porterhouse.
te (Sp., It.) Tea; the German word is Tee
tejolate See molcajete. cows' milk; oblong or cylindrical, it has a thin yellow rind and straw-
tel (Ind.) Oil. colored paste with holes; the acidulated taste becomes more pro-
tempura (Jap.) Seafood and vegetables dredged in a light batter and pounced with age, and the cheese is sometimes flavored with caraway quickly deep-fried in oil; served with a dipping sauce called tentsuyu.
tenderloin A cut of meat, especially beef, from the hindquarter, consisting of one long, slender, and very tender muscle running through the loin section ending at the ribs; it is divided into filet mignon,
chateaubriand, and tournedos for roasts or steaks.
tentsuyu See tempura.
teri (Jap. ) Glaze; teriyaki is poultry, fish, or meat marinated in a sweet soy-sauce preparation and grilled over charcoal so that the marinade forms a glaze.
Terlano A well-known and excellent white wine from the Italian Tirol,
in the Alto Adige Valley; dry, fruity, rounded, and soft.
ternera (Sp.) Veal.
terrapin An edible water turtle that lives in fresh or brackish water;
see turtle.
terrine (Fr. ) A mixture of meat, game, poultry, or vegetables and sea-
sonings, cooked in a dish lined with bacon or pork; the dish was
originally earthenware, hence its name; see also pate.
tete d'aloyau (Fr.) Rump steak.
tete de veau (Fr.) Calf's head; in Italian, testa di Vitello.
Tetilla (Sp.) A Spanish cheese usually made from ewes' or goats' milk-
soft, creamy, and bland.
the (Fr.) 'I ea.
thon (Fr.) Tuna.
thousand-year-old eggs (Chin.) See pi dan.
thyme An herb of Mediterranean origin (and in many varieties) that is
an essential part of the bouquet garni; besides its many culinary
applications, it has been used since ancient times for medicinal purposes.
Tia Maria A liqueur flavored with Blue Mountain coffee extract andspices; from Jamaica.
tian (Fr.) A shallow casserole or, by extension, food baked in it usually an aromatic gratin of chopped vegetables, perhaps with some
leftover meat or seafood; from Provence.
tiede (Fr.) Lukewarm; tepid; at room temperature.
tien mien jiang (Chin.) A thick. sweet, and salty paste made from fermented red beans, flour, salt, and water; used for flavoring sauces and marinades and as a dipping sauce, especially in northern China.
til (Ind.) Sesame seeds. seeds; now made in several central European countries.
tilefish A western Atlantic fish with firm but delicate lean flesh, usually but containing less of the fillet. cut into fillets or steaks; very versatile in cooking.
Tilsit (Ger.) A cooked, unpressed cheese made from raw or pasteurized
timbale (Fr.) A drum-shaped mold, usually metal, or the food prepared
in such a mold, including rice, diced vegetables, or fish mousseline;
also a high, round, covered pastry case, usually decorated, or the
food in such a case.
timo (It.) Thyme.
tipsy parson or pudding (Brit.) An old-fashioned English dessert pudding of sponge cake soaked with spirits and covered with custard or
whipped cream; not unlike a trifle.
tirage (Fr.) "Drawing off" wine from the cask.
tire-bouchon (Fr.) Corkscrew.
tiropita (Gr.) A cheese pie wrapped in phyllo dough.
tisane Herbal tea.
toad-in-the-hole (Brit.) Meat, usually sausage, baked in batter.
tocino (Sp.) Bacon; tocino de cielo, literally "bacon from heaven," is
a thick caramel custard dessert (not made with bacon' however).
toffee (Brit.) See taffy.
tofu (Jap.) Bean curd, white, soft, and easily digestible; in one form
or another it is eaten throughout the Orient and valued for its healthful properties: it is high in protein, low in calories, and free of cholesterol. Tofu is made from dried soybeans processed into a "milk" that is coagulated like cheese; the molded tofu curds are kept fresh in water. Of the many types, momen ("cotton") is the most common fresh
tofu in the United States as well as in Japan; kinu ("silk") has a finer
texture; yakidofu has been lightly broiled. Chinese bean curd (dou
fu) is drier and firmer than Japanese.
togarashi (Jap.) Red hot chili peppers, fresh or dried.
Tokay A famous wine from the town of the same name in northeastern
Hungary, made with some proportion of grapes with the "noble rot"
in varying grades and ranging in sugar and alcoholic content; the best
and rarest Tokay has an incomparable rich, buttery, peach-caramel
flavor. Tokay is also the name of an Alsatian grape, totally unrelated.
Toma (It.) An uncooked whole or partly skimmed cows' milk cheese,
sometimes mixed with ewes' or goats' milk, made in the Alps near
the French Haute-Savoie and Swiss borders; shaped in discs, it ripens
quickly to a pale supple paste or can be matured to a dense, pungent
cheese. See also Tomme.
tomalley The liver of the lobster, colored olive green-a special delicacy.
tomate verde, tomatillo (Mex.) A Mexican green tomato, small and
pungent; not an unripe red tomato (jitomate); used as the basis of
an important Mexican salsa, with serrano peppers, garlic, and co-
riander, all chopped together, either fresh or cooked.
somber a glace (Fr.) To reduce liquid to a glaze.
Tomino (It.) An uncooked, unpressed cows' milk cheese, usually pas-
teurized and sometimes enriched, from the Italian Alps; this rind less
cheese ripens quickly to a delicate, fresh flavor and a soft, smooth
paste, making it an excellent dessert cheese. See also Tomme and
Tomme de Savoie (Fr.) An uncooked, pressed cows' milk cheese from
the French Alps, with an Italian version across the border; made in
8-inch discs with a light brown rind, a pale yellow paste, and a nutty
lactic flavor. Tomme means cheese in the Savoy dialect, and there
are many varieties of it there, made from cows', goats', or ewes' milk.
See also Toma and Tomino.
Tomme Vaudoise (Switz.) An uncooked, soft cheese made from whole
or sometimes partly skimmed milk in the Swiss Alps; round or oblong,
it has a thin, delicately molded white rind and a smooth, buttery,
aromatic interior.
tonkatsu (Jap.) Pork marinated in a spicy sauce, dipped in egg and
bread crumbs, and fried.
tonno (It.) Tuna.
Top (Ger.) Pot; stew or casserole.
Topfen (Aus.) See Quark.
topinambour (Fr.) Jerusalem artichoke; the Italian spelling is
top round See round.
top sirloin See round.
toriniku (Jap.) (thicken meat.
torrone (It.) Nougat.
torsk (Nor. and Swed.) Cod.
torta (It. and Sp.) In Italian, tart, pie, or cake. In Spanish, cake, loaf, or roll of bread. In Mexico, the word can also mean a savory pudding of tortillas stacked like chilaquiles.
Torte (Ger.) Tart, round cake, flan; Tortenbacker is a pastry cook.
tortellini (It.) Small rounds of egg pasta stuffed, folded, and wrapped around the finger; almost the same as cappelletti but round instead of square.
tortilla (Sp. and Mex.) In Spain the word means omelet; in Mexico tortilla means a thin, flat, unraised pancake made of dried cornmeal flour, salt, and water-from the Aztec cuisine. The Mexican term for omelet is tortilla de huevos.
tortoni Ice cream topped with chopped almonds or macaroons; Italian
American in origin and often called biscuit tortoni.
tortue (Fr.) Turtle; sauce tortue is demi-grace with tomato puree,
herbs, truffle essence, and Madeira; a la tortue means calf's head
garnished with veal quenelles, mushrooms, olives, gherkins, calf's
tongue, and brains, with sauce tortue
Toscanello (It.) A cooked, semihard ewes' milk cheese from Tuscany
and Sardinia, made in six-pound cylinders; it has a brownish yellow
rind and a pale dense paste and is aged three to four months to
develop a mild or piquant taste.
tostada (Sp. and Mex.) Toast; in Mexico this means a tortilla fried flat and then topped with all kinds of garnishes, sometimes stacked high.
tostaditas (Mex.) See totopos.
totopos (Mex.) Tortillas cut into six to eight smaller triangles, fried
crisp, and served with dips or as a garnish.
toulousaine, a la (Fr.) Garnished with chicken quenelles, sweetbreads, mushroom caps, cockscombs and kidneys, and truffle slices arranged separately, with allemande sauce-a classic garnish.
tourage (Fr.) Repeated turns of the dough-rolling and folding-in
the making of pate feuilletee.
tourin (Fr.) Onion soup made with milk instead of meat stock (as in
soupe a l'oignon), thickened with egg yolks and cream, and sometimes
served with grated cheese; from southwest France.
tourne (Fr.) A vegetable that is "turned" or shaped with a knife, as
with potatoes and mushrooms; also, food that has gone bad or a sauce
that has separated.
tournedos (Fr.) Thick slices from the middle of the beef fillet, sauteed or grilled.
tourte (Fr.) Tart or pie, usually round and savory; a tourtiere is a pie dish or flan case.
toute-epice (Fr.) Allspice.
tragacanth See gum.
Traminer A white-wine grape family to which the Gewurztraminer
trancher (Fr.) To carve, slice; a tranche is a slice, chop, or steak. The Italian word is trancia
Trappiste (Fr.) A cheese made all over the world by Trappist monks,
Port-Salut being the best known of this type, all of them with slight
variations. The round cheese is semihard, with a soft rind and a dense,
smooth paste with small holes.
Traub(e) (Ger.) Grape; bunch of grapes.
travailler (Fr.) To beat; to stir in order to blend or smooth.
treacle (Brit.) A syrup similar to molasses but slightly sweeter; used
in making puddings, tarts, and other desserts; either golden or black.
Trebbiano A white-wine grape much used in Italy (for White
Chianti, Soave, etc.) and also grown in southern France and California, where it is called Ugni Blanc
tree ear (Chin.) See yun en
trenette (It.) Flat pasta similar to fettucine; traditional pasta for
triflach (Jew.) Farfel lightened with extra eggs.
trifle (Brit.) A dessert pudding of sponge cake or biscuits soaked with sherry or other liquor, topped with custard and whipped cream,
usually garnished with sliced fruit or jam.
triglia (It.) Red mullet, a Mediterranean fish.
trigo (Sp.) Wheat.
tripe The first and second stomachs of ruminants (plain and honeycomb
tripe, respectively); tripe a la mode de Caen (see Caen), requiring
the laborious preparation of beef tripe, is the classic dish.
triple sec (Fr.) A clear, colorless orange-flavored liqueur, such as
Cointreau and Curacao.
Trockenbeerenauslese (Ger.) A very sweet wine made from raisined
(nearly dry) grapes left on the vine and individually chosen from
bunches-the most selective and expensive German wine produced.
Troja An Italian red-wine grape, productive and widely grown for its
deep color and full body; used for blending.
trota (It.) Trout.
trotter The foot of an animal, especially a pig or sheep.
trout A game fish, primarily freshwater and related to salmon, with
fine-textured flesh high in fat content, usually white but sometimes
pink (see sea trout). With very small scales, a simple bone structure,
and succulent flesh, it is adaptable to many culinary uses. Brook,
brown, lake, rainbow, sea trout, and char are a few of the many
trouvillaise, a la (Fr.) Shrimp, mussels, and mushroom caps with
shrimp sauce-a classic garnish.
trucha (Sp.) River trout.
truffle The fruiting body of a black or white fungus which grows un-
derground, unlike other mushrooms. The dense truffle, rough, round,
and with interior veining, grows in symbiosis with certain trees,
especially oak, and only in particular soils and climates. Trained dogs,
goats, and sows, who find the scent of truffles similar to that of boars' saliva in mating season, sniff them out. Their exquisite aroma makes their exorbitant price worthwhile. The best black truffles, increasingly rare, come from Perigord, France; white truffles come from Alba, in northern Italy. Chocolate truffles are chocolate buttercream balls rolled in cocoa, crushed almonds, or chocolate shavings to resemble real truffles.
truite au bleu See bleu, au.
truss To tie poultry or game with string in order to hold its shape
during cooking, to ensure even cooking, and to improve its appearance;
the particular method of trussing depends on the animal, its size, and
the cooking method used.
Trut-hahn (m.), Trut-henne (f.) (Ger.) Tom turkey or hen.
tsukemono (Jap.) Pickled food.
tube pan A ring-shaped cake pan traditionally used for rich cakes,
since the hollow center can be filled and the extensive surface coated with syrup or icing.
tulle (Fr.) A crisp cookie, sometimes made with crushed almonds, that
is placed on a rolling pin immediately after baking so that it curves
and becomes shaped like a "tile" (hence its name).
tulipe (Fr.) A crisp, thin, cookie like dough ruffled while still warm
from the oven into a flower shape to hold dessert berries, ices, etc.
tuna A large saltwater fish with rich meat varying in color and oiliness from one species to another and also from one part of a fish to another; albacore is high-quality tuna with white meat; other species yield darker flesh, bonito being the darkest; tuna is often brined before cooking to lighten the color. Much of the commercial catch is canned, solid ( "fancy" ), chunks, and flakes being the three styles, packed either in oil or water. Baking, broiling, braising, marinating, and smoking are good cooking methods for tuna; the Japanese hold it in special regard for its use in sashimi.
tuna (Mex.) Prickly pear.
Tunke (Ger.) Sauce, gravy.
tunny (Brit.) Tuna.
turban Food, often cooked in a ring mold, served in a circle; used
primarily for seafood or poultry dishes.
turbinado sugar Partially refined sugar, light brown in color, similar to demerara.
turbot An eastern Atlantic flounder with delicate white flesh that rivals the Dover sole in culinary preparations.
turmeric A spice obtained from the dried and powdered rhizome of
an Indian plant, whose bitter flavor and ochre color contribute to
curries; in the Middle Ages its color made it a substitute for saffron,
and even today turmeric is used as a dye for cloth and dairy products
such as margarine.
turnover A pastry square or round filled with a sweet or savory stuffing, folded in half to enclose the stuffing, and baked; the turnover appears in many cultures.
turron (Sp.) A chewy candy made of toasted almonds, honey, egg
whites, and sometimes other ingredients; from Alicante and traditional
for Christmas.
turtle Land and water turtles are both edible, but the aquatic green and diamondback are especially valued for their flesh, mainly in soups and braised dishes; the expense and difficulty of preparing turtle meat and also conservation measures designed to protect the species' diminishing numbers have made turtle recipes far less fashionable than in the past. A terrapin is an edible water turtle that lives in fresh or brackish coastal water; tortoise generally means a land turtle.
Tuscany The region around Florence, Italy, producing Chianti and other red table wines. The Tuscan style of cooking is relatively simple, featuring olive oil, herbs, cannelloni, beans, game, and bread, rather than pasta (except for hare with pappardelle).
tutti-frutti (It.) Mixed fruits (literally "all fruits") chopped and preserved in syrup, usually with brandy.
Tybo (Den.) A cooked cows' milk cheese similar to Samso; brick shaped, supple-textured, with fairly large holes, Tybo is straw-colored on the inside with a yellow rind; its taste is mild and slightly acidulated.
tyrolienne, a la (Fr.) Fried onion rings and tomatoes concassees-a classic garnish.
tzimmes (Jew.) A casserole of brisket of beef with carrots, prunes or other dried fruit, and syrup, topped with potatoes and dumplings; traditional for Rosh Hashanah.

~ U ~

uccello (It.) Bird; uccelli scappati (literally "escaped birds") are veal birds skewered with bacon and sage; uccelletti or uccellini are small birds, usually skewered and roasted whole; sec also meat birds.
uchepos (Mex.) Fresh corn tamales from Michoacan.
udon (Jap.) Wheat noodle.
ugli fruit A hybrid cross between a grapefruit and tangerine, not to be
confused with the Minneola, Orlando, and Seminole tangelos; grown
in Jamaica where it is called hoogli, it has a yellowish green, thick,
coarse skin and sweet orange Hesh.
Ugni Blanc Sec Trebbiano.
ume (Jap.) I'lum (actually a kind of apricot); umeboshi arc pickled
plums; umeshu is plum wine.
umido, in (It.) Stewed.
unagi (Jap. ) Eel.
uovo (It.) Egg; tuorlo d'uovo is the yolk, bianco d'uovo the white;
uovo affogato is a poached egg, uovo molletto is a soft-boiled egg, uovo al burro is a fried egg, and uovo sode is a hard-boiled egg.
usu-kuchi shoya (Jap.) Light soy sauce, clearer, thinner, and saltier than dark soy sauce (koi-kuchi shoya). uva (Sp.) Grape; uva espina is gooseberry; uva passa or secca is raisin.

~ V ~

vacherin (Fr.) A meringue shell made of a solid disc of meringue and separate rings stacked on the circumference to form a container; the baked vacherin shell is decorated with piped scrolls,, then filled with ice cream, creme Chantilly, berries,, or other fruit.
Vacherin Mont-d'Or (Switz. and Ir.) A whole milk cows' cheese, uncooked and unpressed, from the Alps; the disc shaped cheese has a soft, creamy, rich texture with small holes and a delicate, buttery, sweet flavor. Other types of this winter cheese Vaucherin des Beauges and Vaucherin fihourgeois, and they are all often handed with spruce bark, which imparts its subtly resinous flavor.
Valdepenas Red and white table wines from la Mancha, south of Madrid. a very large quantity of which is produced; officially called Vino Manchego; the red is especially light, pleasant. best drunk young and inexpensive.
Valencia A seaport and region in eastern Spain notable for its rice and seafood, both of which grace paella valenciana The Valencia orange, sweet, thin-skinned, and nearly seedless, is an excellent juice or dessert orange.
valenciano (Mex.) A chili pepper similar to the guero.
valencienne, a la (Fr ) A classic garnish of rice pilaf and sweet red
peppers with a tomato-flavored sauce.
Valois (Fr.) A bearnaise sauce with meat glaze.
Valpolicella A red wine produced in northern Italy, northwest of Verona, in five townships. The wine is soft, light, dry, and fragrant, best drunk young; it has been called the Beaujolais of Italy.
Valtellina A wine-producing region in northern Italy, near Switzerland, where the Nebbiolo grape yields some of the country's best wine; dark, robust, and long-lived.
vanilla The fruit pod of a climbing orchid indigenous to Central America, which is picked immature, then cured in a long process. The pod
and interior seeds are used to flavor desserts, and the pod can be
dried and used again, immersed in vodka or sugar, which it permeates
with its aroma; the synthetic vanillin is an inferior substitute.
vanner (Fr.) To stir a sauce until cool, ensuring smoothness and pre-
venting a skin from forming.
vapeur (Fr.) Steam.
varietal wine Wine made from a particular grape, such as Cabernet
Sauvignon, Riesling, or Nebbiolo, which in part gives the wine
its character; depending on the location, the wine is not necessarily
made entirely from the varietal.
variety meat Edible meat other than skeletal muscle, especially organs; see offal.
Vasterbottenost (Swed.) A pasteurized cows' milk cheese in which
the curd is scalded, pressed, and matured for eight months. The rind
of this cylindrical cheese is hard, with a wax covering; the paste is
firm, with small holes, and the taste is pungent.
veal The meat of young beef; milk-fed veal, lean and pale pink to white
in color, comes from animals under three months of age; grass-fed
veal (sometimes called calf or baby beef), rosy pink with cream colored
fiat, is under five months of age.
veal Orloff (Fr.) Saddle of veal (or sometimes lamb) braised and carved in slices. Each slice is coated with Soubise and duxelles, the slices are placed back together, and the whole is masked with bechamel.
and garnished with asparagus tips; from classic haute cuisine.
veal Oscar Veal cutlets sauteed and garnished with asparagus tips, crab legs or crayfish tails, and sauce bearnaise.
veau (Fr.) Veal.
vellutata (It.) A soup thickened with egg yolk, like the French veloute.
veloute (Fr. ) ``Velvet', white sauce based on a white roux with white
stock, either fish, chicken, veal, or vegetable; this basic classic sauce is similar to bechamel but uses stock rather than milk. A soup veloute is a puree combined with veloute and finished with cream and egg
venitienne, a la (Fr.) Fish fillets poached in white wine, served in a reduction sauce flavored with shallots, tarragon, chervil, and a little vinegar, and garnished with croutons in the shape of a heart.
venison Deer meat; the word used to mean any furred game.
ventre (Fr.) Belly, breast.
verbena See lemon verbena.
Verdelho A type of Madeira, now quite rare, fairly dry and not unlike
a Sercial; the name is from a grape variety.
verdure (It. and Sp.) Vegetable; the Italian plural is verdure, the Spanish verduras; in French verdure means greenery or foliage.
verjuice The juice of unripened grapes or possibly other fruit, not necessarily fermented; in the Middle Ages sour flavorings such as verjuice and vinegar were used a great deal in cooking.
vermicelli (It.) Very thin pasta-literally "little worms"-often used
for soups and puddings.
vermouth A white aperitif wine, fortified and flavored with herbs and
spices, including wormwood flower ( Wermut in German, hence its
name); French vermouth is dry and pale, Italian vermouth sweet and
Veronique, sole See sole Veronique.
verse, mayonnaise See mayonnaise verse.
vert-pre (Fr.) A garnish for grilled meats of straw potatoes,
watercress, and beurre maitre d Hotel; also chicken or fish masked with mayonnaise verse; literally, "green meadow."
vessie (Fr.) Pig's bladder; poularde en vessie is a famous oId dish from Lyons of stuffed chicken poached in a pig's bladder.
Vezzena (It.) A hard cows' milk cheese made in the Italian Alps from
partially skimmed milk; it is a scalded-curd cheese, aged six months
to a year, depending upon whether it is to be used as a table or
grating cheese.
viande (Fr.) Meat.
Vichy, carrots a la See carrots a la Vichy.
vichyssoise Cream of potato and leek soup, served chilled and garnished with chives; the creation of Louis Diat, chef of the Ritz-Carlton in New York, and named for his native French city.
Victoria (Fr.) Lobster sauce with diced lobster and truffles, for fish: also a classic meat garnish of tomatoes stuffed with duxelles and
artichoke quarters sauteed in butter, the pan deglazed with veal stock
and port or Madeira; also various cakes.
viennoise, a la (Fr.) "Viennese style"-coated with egg and bread crumbs, fried, and garnished with sliced lemon, capers, olives, chopped
parsley, and hard-boiled egg yolks and whites (separately); a classic garnish, used especially for veal and chicken cutlets or fish fillets.
Vierlander Poularde (Ger.) Chickens bred in the Vierlande district near Hamburg, known for their fine quality.
vigneron (Fr.) Wine grower; a la vigneronne means with wine, brandy, grapes, or grape leaves.
Villalon (Sp.) A fresh ewes' milk cheese, originally from the Spanish Old Castile near Portugal; white, even-textured, sharp-flavored and salty; cylindrical in shape.
Villeroi, Villeroy (Fr. ) A veloute sauce well reduced with truffle and ham essence.
vinaigrette (Fr.) A basic sauce or dressing of oil and vinegar, usually in a proportion of three to one, with salt and pepper and perhaps some chopped herbs.
vindaloo (Ind.) A spicy dish from Goa, highly seasoned with vinegar, garlic, and curry; usually made with rich meat.
vin du pays (Fr.) Local wine of a specific region, usually not well known or shipped elsewhere.
vine leaves Young grape leaves blanched and used to wrap small birds and savory mixtures such as dolmas; the leaves both flavor and encase their stuffing and keep it from drying out.
vinho verde (Port. ) "Green" young wine produced in northern Portugal, often very enjoyable and occasionally sparkling.
Vinifera The grape varieties originating in Asia Minor and known as European, vs. the America origin Labrusca. Instead of being slip skin, like the American grapes, their skin clings to the flesh of the fruit, and the seeds are fairly easily separated from the pulp.
vin nature (Fr.) Unsweetened French wine-a term used loosely.
vin ordinaire (Fr.) Common table wine of unknown origin but specific alcoholic content.
vintage The grape harvest of a particular year and the wine made from it.
violet A plant whose flowers are crystallized as a dessert garnish; the fresh flowers and young leaves can be used in salads.
Virginia ham See Smithfield ham.
Viroflay, a la (Fr.) A classic garnish of spinach balls, quartered artichoke hearts, chateau potatoes, and veal stock; also means "with spinach."
vitello (It.) Veal; vitello tonnato is braised veal marinated in tuna sauce flavored with anchovies, capers, and mayonnaise and served cold-a classic dish.
volaille (Fr.) Poultry, fowl, or chicken.
vol-au-vent (Fr.) Puff pastry cases, literally "flight of the wind,'; either large or small round shells with a cap, used to hold savory or sweet fillings; the small shells are sometimes called bouchees a la reine.
Vollrads, Schloss A celebrated vineyard in the German Rheingau next to Schloss Johannisberg and with its own medieval castle; the wide ranging and numerous wines produced there, despite the complicated labeling, all reveal the vineyard's breeding and charm.
Volnay A village in the French Cote de Beaune, between Pommard and Meursault, producing excellent and renowned red Burgundy wine; it is soft, delicate, and refined, with a long aftertaste.
vongola (It.) Clam.
Vorspeisen (Ger.) Appetizers, hors d'oeuvre.
Vosne-Romanee A wine-producing commune in Burgundy with some extraordinarily fine red wines that possess exceptional bouquet, balance, and breeding.
Vouvray A white wine of the Touraine region of the Loire Valley made from the Chenin Blanc grape; Vouvray can vary greatly in character from dry, fruity, and tart, to rich, sweet, and golden, or even effervescent or sparkling. For a white wine it is extraordinarily long-lived.

~ W ~

A wine-producing town in the German Rheinpfalz; its fine white wines are mostly from the Sylvaner and Riesling grapes.
waffle A crisp, thin cake made from a pancake like batter and baked inside a special double-sided and hinged iron, giving it its thin honeycombed surface; waffles, whose history reaches far back, are eaten with sweet or savory toppings.
Wahen ( Switz. ) Large open tarts filled with vegetables, cheese, or fruit. wakegi (Jap.) Scallion like onion.
Waldmeister (Ger.) Woodruff.
Waldorf salad Chopped apples, celery, and walnuts in mayonnaise; created by Oscar Tschirky of the Waldorf-Astoria in New York before the turn of the century, although the walnuts were added later.
Walewska, a la (Fr.) Garnished with sliced langoustine and truffles and glazed with Mornay sauce with langoustine butter; a classic sauce named after the son of Napoleon's Polish mistress.
walleye, walleyed pike Actually a member of the perch family, this excellent freshwater fish, with firm, white, fine-textured flesh, lives in large North American lakes.
walliser (Switz.) A generic term for Raclette cheese.
Walnuss (Ger.) Walnut.
walnut A tree indigenous to Asia, Europe, and North America, whose
nuts have been favored since ancient times. The nut meats are eaten
plain, pickled, or used in sweet and savory dishes; their oil is much
esteemed for its distinctive flavor; their husks are even made into a
liqueur called brou In several European languages the word for
walnut is also the generic name for nut, showing its dominance.
wasabi (Jap. ) A plant, often called Japanese horseradish, whose root
is used as a spice for raw fish dishes; it comes fresh, powdered, and
as a paste, and is very hot in flavor and green in color.
washed rind cheese A cheese whose rind is washed with water, brine,
beer, wine, or another liquid during ripening. The purpose is to
prevent the growth of certain bacterial cultures but encourage that
of others and to keep the cheese from drying out.
Washington, a la (Fr.) A classic garnish of corn with cream sauce.
wassail A spiced punch, traditionally some kind of beer, drunk on festive occasions, very often Christmas; the word, of Scandinavian derivation, means "to your health."
water chestnut The fruit of a long-stemmed water plant that grows
inside irregularly shaped thorns beneath the floating leaves. The starchy fruit has a crisp texture and delicate taste not unlike boiled chestnuts and can be used in many ways. It grows all over the world but is little appreciated outside the Orient.
watercress A plant growing in shallow streams, whose crisp, deep green
leaves are used as an herb, a salad green, and a garnish; a member
of the mustard family, its flavor is characteristically peppery and
slightly pungent.
water ice A frozen dessert of syrup and fruit juice or puree, usually
with a little lemon juice or other flavoring such as coffee or liqueur;
the ice is frozen smooth but without the addition of egg white, as
in a sherbet; see also sherbet, granite, and spume.
waterzooii (Bel.) A traditional Flemish stew, probably originating in
Ghent (a la gantoise), made with either fish or chicken. The fish
version probably came first, with perch, eel, carp, pike, and possibly
other varieties of fish, cooked in white wine with herbs; in the other
version, chicken is poached in stock with onions, leeks, celery, and
carrots, flavored with lemon juice, and finished with egg yolks and
weakfish Also known as seatrout ( but not to be confused with sea
trout), this member of the drum family is no trout at all, nor is it
weak; this marine fish has lean, sweet, delicate flesh that is versatile
in cooking.
Wehlen A small town on the Moselle River whose wines have become
the best of the Mittel-Mosel; Sonnenuhr, a sundial painted on a slate outcropping in the steep vineyard slope-is the name given to the best of these fine wines.
Weinbeere (Ger.) Grape; Weintraube means a bunch of grapes.
Weinberg (Ger.) Vineyard.
Weissbier (Ger.) Light frothy summer beer ("white beer") from Bavaria, served with a slice of lemon.
Weisswurst (Ger.) A small delicate sausage stuffed with veal, flavored with wine and parsley; a specialty of Munich, it is eaten for breakfast with sweet mustard.
Weizen (Ger.) Wheat.
Wellington, beef See beef Wellington.
Welsh rarebit (Brit.) Pronounced "rabbit," this savory consists of hard Cheddar-type cheese melted with beer or milk and seasonings, poured over toast, and briefly grilled.
Wensleydale (Brit.) An uncooked, pressed cows' milk cheese made in both white and blue styles. The white, made in eight-pound flat discs and aged three to four weeks, is white, flak, moist, and mellow, properly not yellow or sour. The blue, aged four to six months, is similar to Stilton, but less veined and smoother, sweeter, and nuttier.
Westminster The export name for Lymeswold cheese.
Westphalian ham (Ger.) Called Westfalischer Schinken in German, this ham is made from acorn-fed pigs, and is believed by many to rival prosciutto, Bayonne, and Smithfield hams in quality. The meat is lightly smoked, cured, but not cooked, and served in paper thin slices with pumpernickel bread.
wheat A grain of great importance because of its ability, when combined with yeast and water, to form leavened bread; the gluten thus developed stretches to contain the expanding air bubbles. The higher the proportion of protein to starch in the kernel, the more gluten. There are many types of wheat flour, subject to climate and season as well as variety, but in general soft spring wheat (low in gluten) is good for pastry, cakes, pies, biscuits, and cookies. Hard winter wheat (high in gluten) is good for bread. Durum semolina (also high in gluten) is good for pasta.
whelk A gastropod mollusk similar to the periwinkle, appreciated in Europe, especially in Italy as scungilli.
whey The watery liquid which, after coagulation, separates from the curds in the cheese making process; whey contains albumin, lactose, and other nutrients and can be used to make ricotta or Gjetost cheeses.
whitebait Herring and sprat fry, plentiful in the Thames and Garonne Rivers and along the North Sea coast; the tiny fish are usually dipped in batter and deep-fried without being cleaned.
white butter sauce See beurre blanc.
white chocolate Cocoa butter, milk solids, and sugar; contains
no cocoa solids and is therefore, strictly speaking, not chocolate at all.
whitefish A small freshwater fish, mainly North American,
related to trout and salmon, with delicate white meat that tastes best in winter and is often smoked (see cisco); the roe is used as a caviar
white sauce Bechamel or veloute sauce, both made from roux, or
any of their descendants.
whortleberry See bilberry.
Wiener Schnitzel (Ger.) Literally "Viennese cutlet," veal scallops
coated with layers of flour, beaten egg, and bread crumbs, then fried in
butter or lard and served without a sauce, usually with a slice of lemon; sometimes spelled as one word.
Wienerwurst (Ger.) Frankfurter sausage.
Wild (Ger.) Game.
Wildgeflugel (Ger.) Feathered game.
wild rice A grass native to the Great Lakes region of North America
and a distant cousin of common rice. It is now planted and harvested
commercially rather than gathered in canoes, but is still prohibitively
expensive for most consumers. A staple Indian food due to its high
protein and carbohydrate value, wild rice is parched, hulled, and
polished before cooking.
Wiltingen A famous town on the Saar River near Trier, Germany, whose
steep vineyards planted with Riesling grapes produce superb wines
in good years.
Windbeutel (Ger.) Cream puff.
winkle See periwinkle.
wintergreen A creeping evergreen, native to the American northeast,
with deep green, round leaves and red berries; the aromatic leaves
are used as a flavoring.
winter melon A melon with hard, smooth, or furrowed skin and white
to pale green or orange flesh; lacking the perfumed aroma and separation
layer in the stem of the muskmelon, the winter melon can be
harvested into frost and allowed to travel as long as a month on the
way to market. Honeydew, Casaba, Cranshaw (or Crenshaw), Santa
Claus, and Canary melons fall into this category.
Wirsing (Ger.) Savoy cabbage.
witloof See Belgian endive.
wok (Chin.) A round-bottomed metal cooking pan with sloping sides
that provide the large cooking surface suitable for most Chinese
methods of cooking: stir-frying, deep-frying, steaming, smoking, and
(with the top on) braising and poaching. Special ring trivets or flat bottomed woks can adapt the utensil to western electric stoves.
wonton (Chin.) See hun tun.
wood ear See yun en
woodruff A perennial herb found in forests and sometimes used as a ground cover in shady gardens; its leaves, dried or fresh, are used to flavor teas, drinks, and punches, while its delicate flowers, which bloom in May, impart their scent to May wine.
Worcestershire sauce A highly seasoned commercial sauce, made by Lea & Perrins of Worcester, England, for 150 years and used widely as a savory condiment; the recipe, of Indian origin, includes soy sauce, vinegar, molasses, anchovies, onion, chilies and other spices, and lime and tamarind juices; the sauce is fermented and cured before bottling
wormwood An herb once used as a medicine against intestinal worms, hence its name; the toxic leaf gives absinthe its potency and anise flavor, while the more delicate flower imparts its taste (and its name) to vermouth.
wu hsiang fun (Chin.) Seasoning used in Chinese cuisine, a variable mixture of star anise, fennel seeds, Sichuan peppercorns, clove, cinnamon, and nutmeg; five-spice powder.
Wurst (Ger.) Sausage; a Wurstchen is a little sausage.
Wurz (Ger.) Spice or seasoning; Wurzfleisch is a special beef stew with sour-cream sauce, usually accompanied by dumplings or potatoes.
xato (Sp.) A winter salad from Catalonia of Belgian endive with red chili peppers, almonds, garlic, oil, and vinegar. xeres (Fr.) Sherry.xia (Chin.) Shrimp. xiang cai (Chin.) Coriander. xie (Chin.) Crab. x-ni-pec (Mex.) A Yucatecan version of salsa Mexicana crude, made with juice of the Seville orange. xoconostle (Mex.) Green prickly pear.

~ Y ~

ya (Chin.) Duck.
yakhni (Ind.) Meat broth.
yaki (Jap.) To grill or broil; yakimono means grilled food; yakitori
is chicken pieces and vegetables skewered, marinated in a spicy sauce,
and grilled.
yam A tuberous vegetable whose high starch content has enabled it to
serve as a valuable food source for millennia, especially in tropical
and subtropical regions; it has white or yellow flesh and brown skin
and is often confused with the sweet potato, especially in the U.S.,
where a variety of sweet potato is mistakenly called yam.
yan cai (Chin.) The nest of cliff-dwelling birds, considered a great
delicacy in Chinese cuisine. The dried nests, either white or black,
are soaked in water to restore their gelatinous texture and used to
garnish soups at banquets and special occasions; very expensive, es-
pecially the white ones.
yaourt, yahourt (Fr.) Yogurt.
yard-long beans See Chinese beans.
yarrow A plant native to England whose fine lacy leaves are used as an
herb or for tea.
yasai (Jap. ) Vegetables.
yeast A microscopic, naturally occurring fungus that induces
fermentation, thus initiating the chemical process that makes bread, cheese, wine, and beer. The many types of yeast, mainly fresh, dry, and brewer's, convert starch into gas and alcohol. Baking powder is a recent
chemical alternative for leavening bread.
yemas de San Leandro (Sp.) Egg-yolk threads poured into hot syrup
and twisted into sweets-a confection of Moorish origin made by
the nuns of San Leandro in Seville.
yemitas de mi bisabuela (Mex.) Egg yolks, sherry, and syrup formed
into balls and rolled in cinnamon sugar.
yen wo (Chin.) See yen cad.
yogurt, yoghurt, yoghourt Milk that has been fermented with a lactic
culture, turning it slightly acid and custard like in texture; although
health claims for yogurt have been exaggerated, it is useful for its
cooking and keeping properties; yogurt originated in the Balkans
where it is still much used in cooking.
Yorkshire pudding (Brit.) A batter of milk, eggs, and flour, originally baked under a roast beef on an open spit or rack to catch the drippings, puffing up in the process; the pudding is cut into squares for serving. Yorkshire sauce is port wine sauce with red currant jelly, garnished with julienne of orange zest-a classic sauce.
Yquem, Chateau d' A very great white dessert wine, awarded the
unique Grand Premier Cru of Sauternes in the 1855 classification; it is
very sweet, fruity, and luscious; made from grapes with the noble rot,
it is exorbitant in price.
yu chi (Chin.) Shark's fin; a nutritious delicacy in Chinese cuisine
which, after considerable soaking and preparation, is savored for its
gelatinous texture; an expensive specialty reserved for banquets and
special occasions.
Yule log (Brit.) Sec buche de Noel.
yun er (Chin.) An irregularly-shaped fungus that grows on logs, used
in Chinese cooking for its interesting texture; yellow, brown, or black
on one side and white on the other, the dried fungus expands greatly
with soaking before cooking; also called tree ear, wood ear, and other

~ Z ~

(It.) A dessert custard in which egg yolks, flavored with
Marsala and sugar, are beaten over simmering water until they foam
up into a frothy mass; also spelled zabaione; the French version is
zafferone (It.) Saffron.
zakuski (Russ.) Russian hors d'oeuvre starting with caviar and running
the whole gamut; traditionally accompanied with vodka. However
modest or grand the circumstances, the main meal of the day and
any party always begin with zakuski, a tradition that goes back a
thousand years to Scandinavia.
zampone (It.) A highly seasoned pork sausage encased in the skin of
a pig's foot; from Modena.
zanahoria (Sp.) Carrot.
zarda (Ind.) Sweet rice pilaf flavored with saffron and other spices,
nuts, and raisins.
zarzamora (Sp.) Blackberry.
zarzuela (Sp.) A seafood stew, varying widely, in a piquant sauce
flavored with wine or liqueur, all arranged spectacularly; the word means operetta and implies that the dish is a fantastic mixture.
Zeltingen A wine-producing town in the central Moselle Valley producing a large quantity of fine wine, all estate-bottled Riesling.
zenzero (It.) Ginger.
zest The outer colored skin of citrus fruits where the essential oils are concentrated. The French word is zeste, not to be confused with
ziste, the white pith beneath the outer colored layer of skin.
zha (Chin.) To deep-fry.
zheng (Chin.) To steam.
zhi ma you (Chin.) Chinese sesame oil, which is darker in color and
stronger in flavor than western sesame oil; used more for seasoning
sauces than for cooking.
zhu (Chin.) Pork; zhu rou means pork meat.
Zigeuner Art (Ger.) Gypsy style; Zigeunerspies, an Austrian specialty,
is skewered cubes of meat, peppers, and onions grilled over an open
zik de venado (Mex.) Venison cooked in a pib, then shredded and served with onions, Seville oranges, hot chili peppers, and cilantro; from the Yucatan.
Zinfindel A red-wine grape variety of uncertain origin hut widely planted in California; its style ranges considerably from light and fruity, almost like a Beaujolais, to deep, strong, and intense.
zingara, a la (Fr.) Gypsy style-a classic garnish of julienne of ham, tongue, mushrooms, and truffles in a demi-grace flavored with tomato puree, Madeira, and tarragon essence zingara is the Italian word for gypsy woman.
ziti (It.) Large tube pasta cut into segments.
Zitrone (Ger.) Lemon.
zucca (It.) Squash, pumpkin; zucchini literally means little squashes.
zucchero (It.) Sugar.
zuccotto (It.) A dome-shaped dessert of cake moistened with liqueur and fllled with sweetened whipped cream, chocolate, and nuts; originally from Florence, it supposedly resembles the cupola of the Duomo.
Zucker (Ger.) Sugar; Zuckerrube means sugar beet.
Zunge (Ger.) Tongue.
zuppa (It.) Soup.
zuppa inglese (It.) Literally "English soup.'' this is a rich dessert of rum-soaked sponge cake layered with custard and cream, a kind of trifle.
Zwetschge (Aus.) Damson plum; see also Powidl.